In this section of the website students, educators and the general public can download and read various books and documents on the Greek Genocide.
BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND OTHER READING MATERIAL
The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora : how the Greeks of Marmora were expelled from their homes and scattered among the villages around Kermasti or the unwritten testament of the Greeks who were forced to embrace Mohamedanism.
Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, 1918?
Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey.
Published by the American–Hellenic Society Inc. Columbia University, New York, 1919.
The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920
Constantinople. Press of the Patriarchate, 1920
Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Edition of the Central Council of Pontus. Athens 1922.
Norbury, Natzio and Co Ltd, Manchester and London 1919
Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Download from archive.org
Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.
Download from archive.org
Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople 1919.
Oxford University Press, New York 1918.
George Allen and Unwin, London 1922.
Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920.
Pontus Delegation, London-Hesperia Press, 1920.
Sta Ikhni ton Martyron (In the Traces of the Martyrs)
166 pages, in Greek.
Stavros Rakitzis was born in Findikli (Gr: Foundouklia) which was a group of 3 Greek settlements in the İzmit region of north-western Asia Minor (Turkey). Findikli was situated 16km north of Adapazari and had a population of 3,000 comprising 400 families. The settlements were: Leventkoy, Kantarkoy and Asakoy.
The massacre of the Greeks of Findikli occurred in June of 1920 and was part of a broader series of massacres perpetrated by Kemalist forces in the İzmit region between 1920-1921. According to the British Foreign Office based in Constantinople, the men of Findilki were shot after being locked up in a church, while women were exiled and killed. The Foreign Office reported that 400 men and 30 women were massacred. Rakitzis collated 17 testimonies from survivors of the massacres. An excerpt from the testimony of one survivor appears below.
The testimony of Erifili Moskofidou of Asakoy, Findikli (from page 72).
When they finished with this (taking all our money and jewelry) they started assembling the men in the church of the Virgin Mary and the women and children at the school. After all the jewelry was gathered, Kantercius (the leader of the çetes) told my father not to worry. "I will save you all. I want you also to go and tell all the men to gather at the church so that we can talk to them".
My father thought that they would be safe and that nobody would be hurt, so he went home and told my brother Dimitri to come down from the ceiling where he was hiding with his wife.
My brother had just been married 8 days ago and they only found out in the morning that the village had been surrounded by çetes, so he and his wife both hid in the ceiling of their home. That's why I lost both my brother and my father.
When the çetes finally left from our region, and we went back to our village, we didn't see a village. All we saw was flattened earth and ashes, of houses and of human bodies that had met with pain and horror. Somewhere among all this we found a piece of my brother's shirt clinging to some ashes. It showed that those ashes were those of my brother. We gathered them and buried them. We couldn't find any trace of my father.
Those who were lucky to escape told us later that they tied the men up with ropes in 2's or 3's and forced them into their homes then began shooting them and setting their homes on fire thus burning them while they were still inside half-dead.
The Priest of our village, Father Constantinos, they singled out for specific treatment. They hung him inside the church of the Virgin Mary. He was my uncle.
ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES
TOWN AND VILLAGES BURNED
TROOPS COMMANDED TO MURDER AND PILLAGE
CHRISTIANS KILLED,TORTURED AND OUTRAGED.
The Express and Telegraph, 13 Sep 1913.
The "Daily News" of London has been calling public attention to the grave events which followed on the advance of the Ottoman troops from Chataldja and the re-occupation of the territory wrested from them by Bulgaria last Autumn. The, account given by Mr Noel Buxton of the indiscriminate vengeance and slaughter wrought by the Turks was confirmed two days later by telegrams from Constantinople, which quoted reports from the consuls of the Powers in Thrace and from the assistant bishop of the Metropolitan of Rodosto.
Subsequently the London journal received from a source which places its authenticity beyond question, a summary of this latter report, which is of so terrible a character that it has been necessary to alter or suppress passages describing the worst forms of outrage.
The assistant bishop was a member of a Commission sent out to investigate the charges of massacre which early had begun to reach Constantinople. He had as colleagues four Christians, of whom two were Greeks and two Armenians, and a Turkish mufti. His report is dated July 25 and reached Constantinople on July 30.
Bombs and Petroleum.
"On our arrival at Malgara," he writes, "we saw burnt houses. We found on making enquiries that the Bulgarians left on the l5th, and had not done anything wrong. Then Mehmed Ali and Mustafa Pasha came from Gallipoli with the Turkish troops. They were met by the population, who saluted them.
"On July 17 the army commenced pillaging the houses of Christians. At evening a fire broke out, caused by bombs thrown into Armenian houses by Turks. Petroleum carts went about the streets all night, and soldiers threw petroleum over everything. Panic occurred; people fled from the burning quarter to other houses, but were fired on by troops. Several fled to the bazaar, where thirteen Armenians and five Greeks, were at once killed. At night the town was abandoned to the troops. The bazaar and many Armenian houses were burnt. The wind changed and burnt some Turkish houses. Nearly 300 houses, of which 67 were Greek, 15 Ottoman, and the rest Armenian, were destroyed.
"On the same day, July 17, the army passed to Kalivia. When they entered it a trumpet was sounded and an officer gave the order, 'Plunder and massacre!' (Yagma, Yakun, Kessin). Thereupon the army dispersed and killed all the Christians they met. All the houses were looted. A priest told us that they caught him by the beard, tortured him till he lost consciousness, and robbed him. Women were seized. An eye-witness tells us he saw a girl jump from a window to avoid a Turkish soldier. The Canon of the Greek Monastery, with his priests, took refuge in the belfry; but, seeing the danger, they tried to fly. They were caught by the troops, and ropes were put round their necks, but the canon had his throat cut at once; a priest was also killed. The village and neighborhood are full of corpses of men, women, and children. Many girls allowed themselves to be burned in their houses in order to save themselves from the soldiers. Several of the victims went mad.
"Sakche was a hamlet of seven Greek families. When the army appeared an officer demanded of a man whether the hamlet was Christian or Moslem, and on his reply gave orders to burn it. The order was obeyed. The inhabitants who had not fled were burnt.
"An eyewitness at Haskeuy said that after the entry of the army he heard shots; many women and girls were caught by soldiers and were taken to a windmill. Afterwards they were stripped naked and sent off. A little later Moslem villagers arrived, and pillaged everything belonging to the Christians. Then fire broke out, and the village was burned.
Hunted by Dogs.
"The Bashi-Bazouks had many dogs with them. They hunted refugees, and the Bashi-Bazouks shot them. Our informant saw Christe Lambro, a notable, who had had his eyes gouged out and his nose slit because he would not say where his valuables were hidden."
The report gives details not unlike those of Haskeuy, in regard to the villages of Thimitkeui, Kurtli and Temberitkeui.
The entire news report can be viewed at the source below
Source: ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1913, September 13). The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922), p. 6. Retrieved March 25, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210112629
More information about the massacre of Greeks perpetrated by Ottoman authorities in the Malgara region in July 1913 can be found in The Persecution of Greeks in Turkey since the Beginning of the European War by Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos.
In this document the following details were recorded:
At Rodosto: 23 Greeks were killed.
At Kalyvia: Wholesale massacre. On the 4th of July the Ottoman Army entered Kalyvia and began forcibly entering homes, firing at citizens and setting fire to houses. Many girls chose to stay in their homes and were burned to avoid being raped. The Abbot, the priest and an assistant were butchered. Wells were chocked with dead bodies. All houses were burnt. The church and monastery were destroyed.
At Haskeuy: The Ottoman Army entered the village on the 4th of July and began firing at men, women and children killing a large number. Women were raped.
At Thymetkioi: Ottoman soldiers entered the village on the 4th of July. The church was stripped and burned. All houses were looted and many were massacred. Women were raped. The village was burnt to ashes.
At Kiourtle: Army entered on the 4th of July and for 2 days began to plunder, beat and murder the residents. They burned most of the houses and partly burned the church. Turks from the region entered and took everything including furniture, cattle and food.
At Temberikioi: The Army entered on the 4th of July and burned the church and 30 houses. They then looted and massacred many of its inhabitants.
GENOCIDE IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913-1923
Edited by George N. Shirinian
Berghahn Books 2017.
Available at Amazon
The final years of the Ottoman Empire were catastrophic ones for its non-Turkish, non-Muslim minorities. From 1913 to 1923, its rulers deported, killed, or otherwise persecuted staggering numbers of citizens in an attempt to preserve “Turkey for the Turks,” setting a modern precedent for how a regime can commit genocide in pursuit of political ends while largely escaping accountability. While this brutal history is most widely known in the case of the Armenian genocide, few appreciate the extent to which the Empire’s Assyrian and Greek subjects suffered and died under similar policies. This comprehensive volume is the first to broadly examine the genocides of the Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks in comparative fashion, analyzing the similarities and differences among them and giving crucial context to present-day calls for recognition.
PART I: CONTEXTS
Chapter 1. The Background to the Late Ottoman Genocides, George N. Shirinian
Chapter 2. Convulsions at the End of Empire: Thrace, Asia Minor, and the Aegean, Dikran Kaligian
Chapter 3. Assyrians in the Ottoman Empire and the Official Turkish Policy of Their Extermination, 1890s-1918, Anahit Khosroyeva
PART II: DOCUMENTATION AND EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS
Chapter 4. Considering Genocide Testimony: Three Case Studies, Paul Bartrop
Chapter 5. The Assyrian Issue 1914-1935: Australian Documents and Press, Stavros Stavridis
Chapter 6. American Women, Massacres, and the Admiral: Deep in Anatolia during the Turkish Nationalist Revolution, Robert Shenk
Chapter 7. Found in Translation: Eyewitness Accounts of the Massacres in Nicomedia as Reported by Greek Journalist Kostas Faltaits, Eleni Phufas
Chapter 8. The Destruction of Smyrna in 1922: An Armenian and Greek Shared Tragedy, Tehmine Martoyan
PART III: LEGACIES AND INTERPRETATIONS
Chapter 9. Lemkin on Three Genocides: Comparing His Writings on the Armenian, Assyrian and Greek Genocides, Steven Leonard Jacobs
Chapter 10. The Ottoman Genocide of the Armenians and Greeks: The Similarities and Structural Peculiarities, Gevorg Vardanyan
Chapter 11. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks 1913-1923: Myths and Facts, Thea Halo
Chapter 12. Redeeming the Unredeemed: The Anglo-Hellenic League's Campaign for the Greeks in Asia Minor, Georgia Kouta
Chapter 13. Genocide by Deportation into Poverty: Western Diplomats on Ottoman Christian Killings and Expulsions, 1914-1924, Hannibal Travis
Chapter 14. The Socio-Psychological Dimension of the Armenian Genocide, Suren Manukyan
THE TIMES. 18TH APRIL 1914. PAGE 7
4,000 REFUGEES AT HERACLEA.
(FROM OUR CORRESPONDENT)
ATHENS, APRIL 17.
After all deductions have been made to cover for exaggeration, there is abundant evidence to show that the Turks are subjecting the Greeks in Thrace and at Smyrna to systematic persecution in order to bring about their emigration. Approximately 4,000 refugees are now concentrated at Heraclea, of whom 1,000 have already embarked. The boycott of Greeks and of Greek merchandise in the environs of Smyrna is being prosecuted with increasing vigour and is doing considerable damage to European commercial interests.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.