Bibliography

STUDY GUIDE

 

BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND OTHER READING MATERIAL

The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora : how the Greeks of Marmora were expelled from their homes and scattered among the villages around Kermasti or the unwritten testament of the Greeks who were forced to embrace Mohamedanism.
Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, 1918?


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The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922.
By Mark H. Ward, M.D.
London 1922.


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Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey.
Published by the American–Hellenic Society Inc. Columbia University, New York, 1919.

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The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920

Constantinople. Press of the Patriarchate,  1920

View at slv.vic.gov.au

 

 

Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918).

Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.

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Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Livre Noir: La Tragedie Du Pont 1914-1922.

Edition of the Central Council of Pontus. Athens 1922.


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Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor: Speech of Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States. December 22, 1921.

Washington 1922

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The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey: An Appeal Issued by the London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks.

Norbury, Natzio and Co Ltd, Manchester and London 1919

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The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun.

Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.

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Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War

Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.

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Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914-1918.

Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople 1919.

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Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the Beginning of the European War.

Oxford University Press, New York 1918.

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The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom. A file of overwhelming evidence, denouncing the misdeeds of the Turks in Asia and showing their responsibility for the horrors of Smyrna.

George Allen and Unwin, London 1922.

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Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias.

Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.

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The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920.

Pontus Delegation, London-Hesperia Press, 1920.

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OTHER DOCUMENTS

 

Bibliography on the Greek Genocide. Click on title to read more.

 

Alaux, Louis-Paul, and Puaux, René. Le déclin de l'hellénisme. Paris, Payot & Cie, 1916.

American Embassy Constantinople, The Deportation of Ottoman Greeks in 1915. Doc 867.4016/123, August 10, 1915.

Angelou, Michail. Asia Minor Tragedy: An Eye-Witness Testimony. Triti Opsi, Athens 2013.

Baltazzi, G. The Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor and in the Pontus: Speech Given Before the Greek Third National Assembly. Athens 1922.

Barton, James Levi. Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917. Gomidas, 1998.

Barton, James Levi . The Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930.

Baum, Wilhelm. The Christian Minorities in Turkey. Kitab-Verlag Klagenfurt-Wien, 2006.

Bierstadt, Edward H. The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.

Brown, Carroll N, and Ion, Theodore P. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918.

Central Council of Pontus, Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.

Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.

Couzinos, Efthimios N. Twenty-three years in Asia Minor. Publishers' graphics, LLC, IL.

Delegation of the Pan-Pontic Congress, The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun. Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.

Dobkin, Marjorie H. Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.

Doukas, Stratis. A Prisoner of War’s Story.  University of Birmingham, Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman & Modern Greek Studies, 1999.

Ecumenical Patriarchate, The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.

Einstein, Lewis.  Inside Constantinople: A Diplomatist’s Diary during the Dardanelles Expedition, April – December 1915. Printed by William Clowes and sons, London, 1917.

Eliou et al. Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.

Enepekides, Polychronis. Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias. Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.

Faltaits, Kostas. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos, 2016.

Fotiadis, Constantinos, ed. The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. 14 vols. Herodotus, 2004.

Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.

Georgelin, Hervé. La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.

Greek Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press.

Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.

Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G. American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces, Sep 1922. Aristide d Caratzas, 2005.

Hatzigeorgiou, Christos. To Ortakoy Bithynias: Ai Sfages kai i Ksethemeliosis Afton (Ortakoy, Bithynia: The Massacres and Uprooting), Athens 1965.

Hinton, Alexander L, and La Pointe, Thomas, and Irvin-Erickson, Douglas. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press, 2013.

Hofmann, Tessa, ed. and Bjornlund, Matthias, ed. and Meichenetsidis, Vasileios, ed. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012.

Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian Greeks)

Horton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.

Ihrig, Stefan. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination. Belknap Press, 2014.

Kapsi, Yianni. 1922 Ei Mavri Vivlos (1922 The Black Bible), Livani Publishers, 1992.

Karayinnides, Ioannis. The Golgotha of Pontos. Salonica, 1978.

King, William C, ed. King's Complete History of the World War: Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 1914-1918, The History Associates, Massachusetts, 1922, pp.436-438.

William H. King, Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor: Speech of Hon. William H. King of  Utah in the Senate of the United States, Dec 22, 1921. Washington 1922.

Kontogeorge-Kostos, Sofia. Before the Silence: Archival News Reports of the Christian Holocaust the Begs to be Remembered. Gorgias Press, 2010.

Kyriakides, N.G. The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, New York, 1918?

Lepsius ,Johannes. Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.

Lewis, Bernard. The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Liman von Sanders, Otto. Five Years in Turkey. United States Naval Institute, 1927. 

Llewellyn Smith, Michael. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.

London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks, The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. Norbury, Natzio & Co Ltd, Manchester, London 1919.

Lovejoy, Esther Pohl. Certain Samaritans. The Macmillan Company, 1933.

Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.

Marriott, J.A.R. The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

Midlarsky, Manus I. The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Milton, Giles. Paradise Lost: Smyrna 1922. The Destruction of Islam's City of Tolerance. Sceptre, 2009.

Morgenthau, Henry Sr. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Page & Company, 1918. Also published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974.

Morgenthau, Henry Sr. I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.

Morgenthau, Henry Sr. An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.

De Murat. Jean. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.

Murray, Arthur D. Black Sea: A Naval Officer's Near East Experience. Edited by Renee Heideman. Kindle Digital, 2014.

Oeconomos, Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.

L'extermination des Chrétiens d'Orient: faits, documents et témoignages anglais et américains. Thévoz Publisher, 1922.

Papadopoulos, Alexander.  Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919.

Pavlides, Ioannis. Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica, Greece, 1980.

Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans.Paris, 1922.

Rendel, George W. Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice. British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO 371/7876. X/PO9194.

Rummel, Rudolph J. Death by Government. Transaction Publishers, 1997.

Rummel, Rudolph J. Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's Democide — Estimates, Calculations and Sources.”

Sartiaux, Félix. Le Sac de Phocée: et l'expulsion des Grecs Ottomans D'Asie-Mineure en Juin 1914. Paris 1914.

Sartiaux, Félix. Phocaea 1913-1920. The account of Félix Sartiaux. Rizario Idrima, 2008.

Schaller, Dominik J, ed. Zimmerer, Jürgen, ed. Late Ottoman Genocides: The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies. Routledge, 2009.

Shaw, S.J. and Shaw, E.K. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Shenk, Robert. America's Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press, 2012.

Shirinian, George N. The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012.

Shirinian, George N. Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks, 1913-1923. Berghahn Books 2017.

Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.

Soteriou, Dido. Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens: Kedros, 1991.

Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople: Sketches of German and Young Turkish Ethics and Politics. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1917.

Suny, Ronald G, ed. and Gocek, Fatma M, ed. and Naimark, Norman M, ed. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011.

The Pontus Delegation, The Pontus Question: memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920. The Hesperia Press, London, 1920.

Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan. Carolina Academic Press, 1st edition, 2010.

Tsirkinidis, Harry. At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.

Tsoukalas C. The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.

Tusan, Michelle. Smyrna's Ashes: Humanitarianism, Genocide and the Birth of the Middle East. University of California Press, 2012.

Ureneck, Lou. The Great Fire: One American's mission to rescue victims of the Twentieth century's first Genocide. Ecco, 2015.

Venezis, Elias. To Noumero 31328: Sklavoi sta Ergatika Tagmata tis Anatolis. N. Theofanidis & S. Lampadaridis, Mytilene 1931.  

Ward, Mark H. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.

Williams, John. Deutschland über Allah! Germany, Gallipoli and The Great War,  Australian Scholarly Publishing 2016.

Wuarin, Albert. The Martyrdom of the Pontus and International Public Opinion, Geneva 1922.

YeghiayanVartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.

Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris: Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918.

 

Filmography

Smyrna 1922. Directed by Nikos Koundouros (1978).
Based on the book The Number 31328: The Book of Slavery by Elias Venezis. Venezis's memoire details his experience as a prisoner enslaved in a work battalion during the Greek Genocide.

America America. Directed by Elias Kazan (1963).  
The movie begins in the 1890's around the time of the Hamidian Massacres when Armenians and other non-Muslim groups were being persecuted in Turkey. The movie provides an insight into the treatment of non-Turkic minorities in Ottoman Turkey just prior to the genocide.

LA FIN DE SMYRNE
Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes
Hervé Georgelin
CNRS Éditions
Paris 2005.

This volume primarily analyzes the unique social aspects of late Ottoman Smyrna. The final chapter critically assesses the city's violent and deadly destruction by the Kemalist forces.

Availability

 

GENOCIDE IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913-1923
Edited by George N. Shirinian
Berghahn Books 2017.

 

The final years of the Ottoman Empire were catastrophic ones for its non-Turkish, non-Muslim minorities. From 1913 to 1923, its rulers deported, killed, or otherwise persecuted staggering numbers of citizens in an attempt to preserve “Turkey for the Turks,” setting a modern precedent for how a regime can commit genocide in pursuit of political ends while largely escaping accountability. While this brutal history is most widely known in the case of the Armenian genocide, few appreciate the extent to which the Empire’s Assyrian and Greek subjects suffered and died under similar policies. This comprehensive volume is the first to broadly examine the genocides of the Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks in comparative fashion, analyzing the similarities and differences among them and giving crucial context to present-day calls for recognition.

 

CONTENTS

PART I: CONTEXTS

Chapter 1. The Background to the Late Ottoman Genocides, George N. Shirinian
Chapter 2. Convulsions at the End of Empire: Thrace, Asia Minor, and the Aegean, Dikran Kaligian
Chapter 3. Assyrians in the Ottoman Empire and the Official Turkish Policy of Their Extermination, 1890s-1918, Anahit Khosroyeva

PART II: DOCUMENTATION AND EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS

Chapter 4. Considering Genocide Testimony: Three Case Studies, Paul Bartrop
Chapter 5. The Assyrian Issue 1914-1935: Australian Documents and Press, Stavros Stavridis
Chapter 6. American Women, Massacres, and the Admiral: Deep in Anatolia during the Turkish Nationalist Revolution, Robert Shenk
Chapter 7. Found in Translation: Eyewitness Accounts of the Massacres in Nicomedia as Reported by Greek Journalist Kostas Faltaits, Eleni Phufas
Chapter 8. The Destruction of Smyrna in 1922: An Armenian and Greek Shared Tragedy, Tehmine Martoyan

PART III: LEGACIES AND INTERPRETATIONS

Chapter 9. Lemkin on Three Genocides: Comparing His Writings on the Armenian, Assyrian and Greek Genocides, Steven Leonard Jacobs
Chapter 10. The Ottoman Genocide of the Armenians and Greeks: The Similarities and Structural Peculiarities, Gevorg Vardanyan
Chapter 11. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks 1913-1923: Myths and Facts, Thea Halo
Chapter 12. Redeeming the Unredeemed: The Anglo-Hellenic League's Campaign for the Greeks in Asia Minor, Georgia Kouta
Chapter 13. Genocide by Deportation into Poverty: Western Diplomats on Ottoman Christian Killings and Expulsions, 1914-1924, Hannibal Travis
Chapter 14. The Socio-Psychological Dimension of the Armenian Genocide, Suren Manukyan


 

TURKISH ATROCITIES IN ASIA MINOR:

Speech of Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States.
December 22, 1921.
Washington 1922.


A speech delivered by the Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States in which he highlights the atrocities committed by Kemalist forces against native Greeks in Turkey. The Senator subsequently calls for the appointment of an international committee to examine the atrocities and also suggests that the nations of the world unite against these barbarities. Neither eventuated and the Kemalists were able to continue exterminating native Greeks. 

Mr. President, the evidence is overwhelming, and to my mind conclusive, that the statements contained in the resolutions do not overdraw the picture. Indeed, the situation is far more tragic than that depicted in the resolutions. Unless some steps shall be taken by forces outside of Turkey to restrain the bloody hands of Mustapha Kemal, there would seem to be no hope of salvation for these unfortunate people, whose only offense is that they are Christians and have sought to give Turkey a civilization and a culture that would lift the Ottoman Turks to a higher plane, where they might fit to association with the civilized and progressive nations of the world.         -William H. King  p.6.

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