In this section of the website students, educators and the general public can download and read various books and documents related to the Greek Genocide.
BOOKS, DOCUMENTS AND OTHER READING MATERIAL
The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora : how the Greeks of Marmora were expelled from their homes and scattered among the villages around Kermasti or the unwritten testament of the Greeks who were forced to embrace Mohamedanism.
Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, 1918?
Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament to the American Commission on Mandates over Turkey.
Published by the American–Hellenic Society Inc. Columbia University, New York, 1919.
The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek people in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920
Constantinople. Press of the Patriarchate, 1920
Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Edition of the Central Council of Pontus. Athens 1922.
Norbury, Natzio and Co Ltd, Manchester and London 1919
Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Download from archive.org
Oxford University Press, New York, 1919.
Download from archive.org
Greek Patriarchate, Constantinople 1919.
Oxford University Press, New York 1918.
George Allen and Unwin, London 1922.
Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920.
Pontus Delegation, London-Hesperia Press, 1920.
Alaux, Louis-Paul, and Puaux, René. Le déclin de l'hellénisme. Paris, Payot & Cie, 1916.
American Embassy Constantinople, The Deportation of Ottoman Greeks in 1915. Doc 867.4016/123, August 10, 1915.
Angelou, Michail. Asia Minor Tragedy: An Eye-Witness Testimony. Triti Opsi, Athens 2013.
Anglo-Hellenic League, The Treatment of Greek Prisoners in Turkey: Report of the International Commission of Inquiry appointed at the request of the Greek Red Cross. London, 1923.
Barton, James Levi. Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917. Gomidas, 1998.
Barton, James Levi . The Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930.
Baum, Wilhelm. The Christian Minorities in Turkey. Kitab-Verlag Klagenfurt-Wien, 2006.
Bierstadt, Edward H. The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.
Bjørnlund Matthias, The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification. Journal of Genocide Research (2008), 10(1), March, 41–57.
Brown, Carroll N, and Ion, Theodore P. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918.
Central Council of Pontus, Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.
Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.
Couzinos, Efthimios N. Twenty-three years in Asia Minor. Publishers' graphics, LLC, IL.
Delegation of the Pan-Pontic Congress, The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun. Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Dobkin, Marjorie H. Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
Doukas, Stratis. A Prisoner of War’s Story. University of Birmingham, Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman & Modern Greek Studies, 1999.
Ecumenical Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press.
Ecumenical Patriarchate. Black Book: The Expulsion and Martyrdom of the Greeks of Turkey, 1914-1918. Constantinople 1919.
Ecumenical Patriarchate, The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.
Einstein, Lewis. Inside Constantinople: A Diplomatist’s Diary during the Dardanelles Expedition, April – December 1915. Printed by William Clowes and sons, London, 1917.
Eliou et al. Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Emmanuelidis, Emmanuel. The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire. Athens 1924.
Enepekides, Polychronis. Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias. Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
Faltaits, Kostas. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos, 2016.
Fotiadis, Constantinos, ed. The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. 14 vols. Herodotus, 2004.
Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.
Georgelin, Hervé. La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.
Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.
Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G. American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces, Sep 1922. Aristide d Caratzas, 2005.
Hatzigeorgiou, Christos. To Ortakoy Bithynias: Ai Sfages kai i Ksethemeliosis Afton (Ortakoy, Bithynia: The Massacres and Uprooting), Athens 1965.
Hinton, Alexander L, and La Pointe, Thomas, and Irvin-Erickson, Douglas. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press, 2013.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. and Bjornlund, Matthias, ed. and Meichenetsidis, Vasileios, ed. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian Greeks)
Horton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
Ihrig, Stefan. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination. Belknap Press, 2014.
Kapsi, Yianni. 1922 Ei Mavri Vivlos (1922 The Black Bible), Livani Publishers, 1992.
Karayinnides, Ioannis. The Golgotha of Pontos. Salonica, 1978.
King, William C, ed. King's Complete History of the World War: Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 1914-1918, The History Associates, Massachusetts, 1922, pp.436-438.
William H. King, Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor: Speech of Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States, Dec 22, 1921. Washington 1922.
Kontogeorge-Kostos, Sofia. Before the Silence: Archival News Reports of the Christian Holocaust the Begs to be Remembered. Gorgias Press, 2010.
Kyriakides, N.G. The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, New York, 1918?
Lepsius ,Johannes. Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.
Lewis, Bernard. The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Liman von Sanders, Otto. Five Years in Turkey. United States Naval Institute, 1927.
Llewellyn Smith, Michael. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks, The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. Norbury, Natzio & Co Ltd, Manchester, London 1919.
Lovejoy, Esther Pohl. Certain Samaritans. The Macmillan Company, 1933.
Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.
Marriott, J.A.R. The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
Midlarsky, Manus I. The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Milton, Giles. Paradise Lost: Smyrna 1922. The Destruction of Islam's City of Tolerance. Sceptre, 2009.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Page & Company, 1918. Also published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.
De Murat. Jean. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
Murray, Arthur D. Black Sea: A Naval Officer's Near East Experience. Edited by Renee Heideman. Kindle Digital, 2014.
Oeconomos, Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.
L'extermination des Chrétiens d'Orient: faits, documents et témoignages anglais et américains. Thévoz Publisher, 1922.
Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919.
Pavlides, Ioannis. Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica, Greece, 1980.
Puaux, René. Les derniers Jours de Smyrne. Paris, 1923.
Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans.Paris, 1922.
Rendel, George W. Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice. British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO 371/7876. X/PO9194.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Death by Government. Transaction Publishers, 1997.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's Democide — Estimates, Calculations and Sources.”
Sartiaux, Félix. Le Sac de Phocée: et l'expulsion des Grecs Ottomans D'Asie-Mineure en Juin 1914. Paris 1914.
Sartiaux, Félix. Phocaea 1913-1920. The account of Félix Sartiaux. Rizario Idrima, 2008.
Schaller, Dominik J, ed. Zimmerer, Jürgen, ed. Late Ottoman Genocides: The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies. Routledge, 2009.
Shaw, S.J. and Shaw, E.K. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Shenk, Robert. America's Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press, 2012.
Shirinian, George N, ed. The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012.
Shirinian, George N, ed. Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks, 1913-1923. Berghahn Books, 2017.
Shirinian, George N, ed. The Greek Genocide 1913-1923: New Perspectives. The Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2019.
Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
Soteriou, Dido. Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens: Kedros, 1991.
Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople: Sketches of German and Young Turkish Ethics and Politics. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1917.
Suny, Ronald G, ed. and Gocek, Fatma M, ed. and Naimark, Norman M, ed. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011.
The Pontus Delegation, The Pontus Question: memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920. The Hesperia Press, London, 1920.
Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan. Carolina Academic Press, 1st edition, 2010.
Tsirkinidis, Harry. At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.
Tsoukalas C. The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.
Tusan, Michelle. Smyrna's Ashes: Humanitarianism, Genocide and the Birth of the Middle East. University of California Press, 2012.
Ureneck, Lou. The Great Fire: One American's mission to rescue victims of the Twentieth century's first Genocide. Ecco, 2015.
Venezis, Elias. To Noumero 31328: To Biblio tis Sklavias. N. Theofanidis & S. Lampadaridis, Mytilene 1931.
Ward, Mark H. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.
Williams, John. Deutschland über Allah! Germany, Gallipoli and The Great War, Australian Scholarly Publishing 2016.
Wuarin, Albert. The Martyrdom of the Pontus and International Public Opinion, Geneva 1922.
Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.
Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris: Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918.
Smyrna 1922. Directed by Nikos Koundouros (1978).
Based on the book The Number 31328: The Book of Slavery by Elias Venezis. Venezis's memoire details his experience as a prisoner enslaved in a work battalion during the Greek Genocide.
America America. Directed by Elias Kazan (1963).
The movie begins in the 1890's around the time of the Hamidian Massacres when Armenians and other non-Muslim groups were being persecuted in Turkey. The movie provides an insight into the treatment of non-Turkic minorities in Ottoman Turkey just prior to the genocide. Availability
The Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2019.
Edited by George Shirnian.
Available at Amazon
The deportation, mass killing, and ultimate expulsion of citizens of the Ottoman Empire of Greek ethnicity during the waning years of that empire and its transition to the Turkish Republic are well documented, but perhaps not widely known. The numerous archival sources and secondary works cited in these carefully researched studies are a rich source of evidence and testimony, many not available in the English language. This collected research by a group of scholars, young and old, of different countries and different ethnicities, strives to delve more profoundly into this history, to explore new aspects of it, to broaden our knowledge of what happened, and to deepen our understanding of its significance. As the title states, this book seeks to provide new perspectives on the Genocide of the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire. This book is the most recent effort in a series of activities by the Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, Inc. (AMPHRC), a nonprofit organization whose mission is to research and document the history of the Greeks in Asia Minor, Pontos, Eastern Thrace, and their Diaspora. The book's title, The Greek Genocide, 1913-1923: New Perspectives, describes its aim and its contents. As the AMPHRC has already published several books of original research related to the Greek Genocide, the intention was that this new publication should say something new.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I - THE GENOCIDE AND ITS DOCUMENTARY SOURCES
Mapping Out the Turkish Documents on the Unweaving of Greeks from the Black Sea (The Pontic Genocide, 1919–1923): Serdar Korucu and Emre Can Daglioglu
The Roman Catholic Accounts Testifying to the Pontic Greek Genocide: Theodosios Kyriakidis
The Legal Structure for the Expropriation and Absorption of Armenian and Greek Wealth in the Ottoman Empire and Turkey: Ümit Kurt
The Deportation of Greek Prisoners of War and Interned Civilians, 1922–29: An Untold Story: Stavros Stavridis
PART II - WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE GENOCIDE
British Perspectives on Turkish Atrocities in the Former Ottoman Empire, 1919–1922: The Great Catastrophe: Elisabeth Hope Murray and Amy Grubb
American Emergency Relief to Greece, 1918–1923: An Overview: Nikolaos Ath. Misolidis
PART III - PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO THE GENOCIDE BY THE VICTIMS
Denying the Possibility of Annihilation during Genocide: A Case Study of the Armenians and Greeks, 1915–1922: Tehmine Martoyan
Mass Suicide during the Greek Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, 1913–1923: Hasmik Grigoryan
Les Derniers Jours de Smyrne
René Puaux (1878-1937) was a journalist for the French newspaper Le Temps. He arrived at Smyrna (today İzmir) in 1919 and collected vital eye-witness testimonies from the holocaust and massacres following the Kemalist Army's entrance to the city in September 1922.
Depuis la publication de La Mort de Smyrne, de nouveaux documents et témoignages sont venus renforcer le dossier de cet épouvantable sinistre, qu’on ne saurait oublier, comme s’il s’agissait d’un gros fait-divers d’éphémère intérêt. En réunissant ici les résultats nouveaux de mon enquête, je crois faire œuvre utile au point de vue historique, car les hommes passent, la mémoire des témoins s’estompe, les documents se dispersent et, après un certain temps, il devient impossible de reconstituer les faits, avec quelque chance de précision.
J’ai délibérément écarté tous les renseignements dont je ne connaissais pas la source, tout ce qui était vague ou généralisateur. J’ai même atténué les nombreux récits que j’ai entendus ou eus sous les yeux pour faire la part de la nervosité de victimes qui ont tout perdu, de l’exagération orientale et des incapacités d’observation qui sont communes, scientifiquement, à la majorité des hommes.
Ce qui reste suffit à ne point laisser d’illusions sur l’horreur de la catastrophe de Smyrne et sur l’entière responsabilité de l’armée kémaliste et de ses chefs.
THE LAST YEARS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Former Member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin
Emmanuel Emmanuelidis (1867-1943) was born in Kayseri, Asia Minor. He studied law in Constantinople and Athens and later worked in a legal practice in Smyrna. He served as a member of the Ottoman Parliament for Smyrna and Aydin for a number of years. His memoir The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire was completed in August 1920 and published in 1924.
An excerpt from the book:
Around the last quarter of 1913 I went to Istanbul and encountered some unusual figures, people wearing a new type of clothing; velour trousers and black caps. It wasn't until later that I realised these were the famous fedayis, in other words the army the Neo-Turks were creating to execute decisions made against the Christian element in Constantinople and the districts. While they were organizing this force, they were also putting into place suitable propaganda to prepare the Turkish people for the imminent campaign. The media began exciting the public in pages of various daily newspapers with the purpose of igniting the Turkish fire of hatred against the Greeks. The intended message was to have people think that as long as Greeks stayed in the country, Turks would remain poor and the value and life of the Muslim would never be secure and the nation would be in danger. Pictures began circulating of the rulers of the Balkan nations on horseback trampling on the Turkish flag or on the corpses of women and children. Despicable maps were printed where the lost lands were colored black and were posted to schools with revengeful inscriptions on them, the region ceded to Bulgaria having a dark colour, an indication that Greece had to pay for it. Announcers and propagandists were sent to different regions as well as messengers of hate and revenge, the loudest of whom was Omer Nadzi of Smyrna. - Emmanuel Emmanuelidis, pp. 54-54.
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some of those news reports.