In 2013, historian Vlassis Agtzidis uncovered three newspaper reports from 1924 which described how the administration of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk sent 400 tonnes of human remains (approximately 50,000 human bodies) to the port of Marseilles, France aboard a British flagged ship. The reports appeared in The New York Times, the French Midi newspaper and the Greek newspaper Macedonia. The news reports describe how the human remains originated from the port of Mudanya on the Sea of Marmara in Turkey. Agtzidis argues that the remains of these dead bodies may have been destined for industrial use.
The practice of turning human bones into fertilizer was not an uncommon one in the early part of the 19th century. In fact it occurred following the battle of Waterloo (1815). In The Independent newspaper of 3 Aug 2014, Robert Fisk wrote:
After Waterloo, the bones of the dead – Wellington’s Britons and Napoleon’s French and Blücher’s Prussians – were freighted back to Hull to use as fertilizer for England’s green and pleasant land, military mulch from the 1815 battlefields which also yielded fresh teeth to be reused as dentures for the living.
Research by Joe Turner in March 2015 based on archival news reports also revealed credible evidence that an international bone trade did in fact exist during the 19th century.
Yarn of a Cargo of Human Bones: The New York Times (Dec 23, 1924)
According to Agtzidis, France was pro-Turkish during the period in question, and it wouldn't have been an ethical issue for the French to purchase the bones of dead victims for industrial use.
The New York Times article of December 23, 1924 wrote:
Marseilles is excited by a weird story of the arrival in that port of a ship flying the British flag and named the Zan carrying a mysterious cargo of 400 tons of human bones consigned to manufacturers there. The bones are said to have been loaded at Mudania on the Sea of Marmora and to be the remains of the victims of massacres in Asia Minor. In view of the rumors circulating it is expected that an inquiry will be instigated.
About the load in question, the French newspaper Midi published a news report titled A Mournful Load' in which it stated:
There is much debate happening at present in Marseille about the forthcoming arrival aboard the cargo ship Zan of a cargo of human remains which is transporting 400 tonnes of human remains for the industries in Marseilles. These human remains are coming from Armenian massacre camps in Turkey and from Asia Minor in particular.
Midi Newspaper,Cargaison funebre (A Mournful Load).
On the 24th of December 1924 the Greek newspaper Macedonia reported that the Zan did in fact arrive at the port of Salonica, however the contents of the cargo were not publicly reported. Salonica at the time was overflowing with genocide survivors, so it is possible that authorities chose to keep the cargo's contents a secret so as not to aggrieve the survivors of the genocide.
Despite this, workers at the Salonica port were aware of the cargo. In his book titled Chronicles of the Great Tragedy, C. Angelomatis states that workers at the port reacted to the cargo’s contents but Greek authorities weren't allowed to take action due to British intervention.
Athenian newspapers published the news as follows: 'The docking into the port of Salonica of the English ship Zan from Mudania has transferred four hundred tons of dead Greek bodies. The workers at the port who made the revelation prevented the ship from sailing away, but the British consul intervened and the ship was allowed to sail on'.
They were the bones of Greek heroes ... they were the bones of our Greek soldiers who were either killed en masse or were made to die slowly in extermination camps, the worst of which was the camp of Usak.