Overview

 A map of Thrace following the Treaty of San Stephano (1878)

The genocide of the Greek minority in the Ottoman Empire (today Turkey) during the period 1914-1923 had its origins in the region of Eastern Thrace, otherwise known today as European Turkey or Turkish Thrace. In June 2006 at Didymoticho, Thrace at a global conference of Thracian Greeks, it was decided that April 6 be assigned as the official day of commemoration for the genocide of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace. April 6 was chosen because it was on this day in April 1914 - an Easter Monday - that the Turks began systematically eliminating Greeks from the region. The Greeks of Eastern Thrace also refer to the genocide as ‘Black Easter’ (Grk: Μαύρο Πάσχα).

The regime responsible for the persecution of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace before and during the First World War was the Committee of Union and Progress (C.U.P) otherwise known as the Young Turks. The methods used to eliminate Greeks in the region included: boycotting businesses, looting, murders, deportation, extortion, pillaging of towns, villages and places of worship etc. These methods were so effective, and were met with such little or no resistance and international condemnation, that similar methods were later used against other Greek communities in the Empire to bring about their total destruction.

The population of Greeks in Eastern Thrace at the beginning of the 20th century was more than 350,000. During the genocide, many Greeks of Eastern Thrace were exiled to Greece, while 100,000 were deported to the interior of Asia Minor and only half returned.1

Persecutions in 1914

On the 6th of April 1914, 200 Greek families from Strangia (Grk Στράντζα, Trk: Binkilic) were deported. After being beaten, stripped of their valuables and having large sums of money extorted from them, Turkish corporals and gendarmes with swords drawn, ordered them to leave. Aspasia Constantinides was an eye-witness to the deportation and recounted:

After a two hour march, we reached a deep and narrow ravine where we found Corporal Ismail with a number of immigrants, apparently waiting for us. As soon as he saw us, he ordered our drivers to stop, and dragging the women out of the carts beat them savagely. They snatched the earrings the women wore and in so doing cut their ears; they forced them to undress in order to get at the necklaces they wore, and often tore them off their necks with such violence that in one instance a woman's throat was cut, causing the blood to flow in torrents.2

They arrived at Heraclea (Trk: Marmara Ereğlisi) where they were boarded onto the S.S Markella and deported.

The Teskilat-i Mahsusa (Special Organization or SO) was a Turkish paramilitary unit that was often used during the genocide to co-ordinate attacks on minorities. A report dated 8th of April 1914, by one of the foreign embassies in Constantinople made mention of 'Special Committees' operating in the Thrace region that were terrorizing Greeks and forcing them to flee. With the aid of the police, they were confiscating property and making residents sign declarations that they were leaving of their own free will.3

A report by the Consular Agent in Kirk-Kilisse (Trk: Kirklareli) on the 23rd of April 1914, stated that the hodjas (Muslim schoolmasters) in local mosques were exciting the hatred of Christians and  Greeks, and officials were arming local Turks with army rifles to commit crimes.4

The situation had become so unsafe for Ottoman Greeks that on the 6th of May 1914, the Greek deputies and senators of the Ottoman Parliament made a protest to the Ottoman Government against the persecution of the Greeks in the Empire, but to no avail.  Later that month, the Ecumenical Patriarchate declared the Orthodox Greek church in a state of persecution in the Ottoman Empire and subsequently ordered the closure of all churches and schools.

Port Pirie Recorder and Western Mail (South Australia), 19 May 1914, page 2.

In September 1914, the Mudir (local governor) Sarakin Tahsim Bey, forced the residents of Skepastos to hand over 40,000 okas (Ottoman unit of mass) of corn which he then distributed to the Turkish immigrants at Viza (Trk: Vize). Rigorous boycotts were also enforced on the Greeks of Rodosto (Trk: Tekirdağ) causing many to flee. Out of 250 shops only 20 remained.5

Neohori (Trk: Yeniköy) was located on the main road that linked Gallipoli to Kessani and Constantinople through Rodosto. Before 1914, the village comprised 689 people, all Greeks. In 1914, 567 of the village-folk of Neohori were deported to Vizir Hani (near Bursa) a distance of 300 km. They were first taken to Peristasi (Trk: Şarköy) and from there deported to the interior of Turkey. Only 275 returned after the war in 1918.6

Persecutions in 1915

Between January and April of 1915, there were reports of Greeks being buried alive and arrests of people on dubious charges. Priests, teachers and entire families were also thrown in jail.7

During WW1, the Greek men of Eastern Thrace were enlisted into the notorious Labour Battalions (Amele Taburlari) where men were literally worked to death, doing back-breaking work with little food or water. The rate of desertion was so high that women were beaten by gendarmes with whips on their soles in order to disclose the location of their husbands. 

The Greeks in the Diocese of Gallipoli and the Dardanelles were given two hours notice and deported during April 1915 on the pretext of military necessity. They were sent to the interior of Asia Minor without food and water to places near Balikesir some 200 km away. In total, a dozen towns and villages in the Gallipoli region were destroyed and 22,000 Greeks sent to the interior where they were at the mercy of hostile Turks.8

Frank W. Jackson, of Pennsylvania, USA was president of the Greek Relief Committee, an organization established during WW1 to provide relief to Greeks during the genocide. In 1917 he said:

The Greeks of Asia Minor have always been law-abiding and perfectly loyal to the Turkish Government. Under Abdul Hamid they were well treated, but his successors adopted a program to crush them...Along with the Armenians, most of the Greeks of the Marmora regions and Thrace have been deported on the pretext that they gave information to the enemy.9

On the 15th of April 1915, the Greeks of Amygdalia and Maistros in the district of Enos (Trk: Enez) were deported to Turkish villages such as Beyendi and Pasait, while the Turks of the nearby villages plundered their properties, churches and monasteries.10

From the 1st to the 15th of May 1915, the Greeks of Büyükdere, Kirits and Yeni-Machala (Dercos district) were deported. In some villages, people were compelled to sign a declaration that they left of their own accord and out of fear. Protests were made regarding these deportations, but even still, the houses and properties of those deported continued to be seized by Turks.11

On the 1st of June 1915, the inhabitants of Pyrgos (Trk: Burgaz) in the district of Dercos consisting of 3,000 persons including men, women and their babies, children and old people were ordered to abandon their villages and were forced to walk for hours to Büyükdere. From there they were deported to the interior of Turkey and settled in Turkish villages such as Ik-kiol and Soulio in the district of Nicaea (Trk: Iznik). Their homes were seized by Turkish refugees.12

The diocese of Enos was made up of 10,057 Greeks. In August of 1915 they were deported to Malgara (Trk: Malkara). Of the 17 churches, 15 were destroyed and the library which contained 1,900 volumes was pillaged. The monastery of Skalotis was burnt and those of Agios Panteleimon and Tsandiri were completely demolished.13

A report from Constantinople dated 8th of September 1915 stated that all the villages of the district of Kirk-Kilisse had been emptied of their Greek inhabitants. From Skepastos 3,000 Greeks were deported toward Rodosto. On the 8th of September 4000 inhabitants from Sophides were evacuated. The Greeks of Samacovo (Trk: Demirköy) in the district of Vizye (5,000 inhabitants) were also deported around this time. Tourla and St. Stefano of the Vizye district (3,150 inhabitants) were surrounded by Turkish gangs and no one remained.14

In September 1915, the Greeks of Skepastos (Trk: Yenice) were deported after being stripped of all their belongings and arrived at Heraclea after a four day march. The majority then crossed over to the Asiatic side and settled at Balikesir and Ada Pazar. Murder and floggings preceded their deportation.15

The town of Skopos (Trk: Üsküp) and its 6,000 inhabitants had a similar fate. On the 5th of September the town was surrounded by gendarmes and 200 Turks under the command of the ex-chief of the Ismidt gendarmes, Yussuf Bey. The residents were forbidden from leaving. For five whole days they were subjected to an orgy of cruelty and were stripped of 3.000 Ltq (Turkish lira). Some Greeks were buried alive after being forced to dig their own graves. On the 10th of September they were finally deported.16

Harry Stürmer was a German journalist and correspondent for the Kölnische Zeitung newspaper in Constantinople during the years 1915-1916. In his memoir titled Two War Years in Constantinople, Stürmer was highly critical of the Turkish authorities and their treatment of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace. He wrote:

I would like to say here a word about these Greek persecutions in Thrace and Western Anatolia that have become notorious throughout the whole of Europe. They took place just before the outbreak of war, and cost thousands of peaceful Greeks – men, women and children – their lives, and reduced to ashes dozens of flourishing villages and towns.17

Persecutions from 1919-1922

At the conclusion of the First World War, the C.U.P leaders responsible for the atrocities against Ottoman Greeks during the war, were tried in Ottoman courts and found guilty of war crimes. While this may have offered some justice to victims' families, the Allied occupation of Constantinople, and the occupation of Smyrna by the Hellenic army in May 1919 led to the formation of the Nationalist Kemalist movement of Mustapha Kemal. The continued persecution of Ottoman Greeks by the Nationalists from 1919-1922 was a continuation of the program initiated by the C.U.P and was to conclude with their final expulsion.

Many atrocities committed by the Kemalists from 1919-1922 were reported to the Armenian-Greek Section (A.G.S) which was formed by the British High Commission in Constantinople. Between February 1919 and November 1922, the A.G.S met 87 times and heard numerous reports of atrocities against Greeks, but no action was taken against the perpetrators since the Allies were reluctant to act militarily.  

On the 20th of May 1919, it was reported that Lieutenant Alwyn Hadkinson, a Relief Officer for Southern Thrace, toured the region and concluded that arms were being distributed with the knowledge and assistance of Government officials. Public security he said was poor and the anti-Christian propaganda was on the increase.18

On the 25th of June 1919, Dr. Theotokas representing the Ecumenical Patriarchate reported that brigandage, murders and pillaging were occurring throughout Thrace.19

The A.G.S heard that the kaimakam (governor) of Shehnikeuy was responsible for Greeks of Rodosto, Malgara and Keshan abandoning their homes and that the Military Governor of Adrianople was encouraging marauding bands there, and that the situation was worsening.20

At the 12th of November 1919 meeting, Mr Calvocoressi representing the Patriarchate reported that Rodosto was full of fedais (fighters prepared to sacrifice their lives) who were menacing the Christians. The Turkish notables at Sharkeuy met at the mosque and stated that they were officially joining the Kemalist Nationalist movement and were preparing to distribute arms and impose payments to those unable to undertake military duty.21

The A.G.S heard on the 10th of December 1919 that Christians returning to their homes at Rodosto found that the Turks had taken possession of their houses and were pulling down their churches to build barracks.22

At the A.G.S meeting of the 10th of March 1920, it was reported that 5 villages at Rodosto were pillaged by 50 unknown persons wearing gendarme uniforms. A month earlier Nationalists had arrived at Rodosto with their leader and arms were distributed among the population.23

The New York Times, 4 March 1920.

On the 30th of June 1920 meeting, it was reported that the Greeks of Heraclea fled to Constantinople after their shops and houses were pillaged and some of the residents were killed. The village of Karahovouz containing 100 families was set on fire and its population massacred.24

The Greeks of Eastern Thrace continued to be persecuted by the Nationalist Kemalists until July 1920 when Hellenic forces were given Allied permission to occupy Eastern Thrace to provide them protection.   

In September 1922, the Nationalist forces of Mustapha Kemal brought to an end the existence of Hellenism in the East by burning the city of Smyrna to ashes and setting a deadline for the remaining Ottoman Greeks to leave the country or be deported to the interior; in other words face certain death. Following the signing of the Armistice of Mudanya on the 11th of October 1922, the Greeks of Eastern Thrace were given 15 days to evacuate their ancestral homeland and leave.

American writer and journalist Ernest Hemingway (1892-1961) arrived in Constantinople on the 30th of September 1922 as a foreign correspondent for the Toronto Daily Star to report on events following the Smyrna fire. The following month he was in Thrace and witnessed the expulsion of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace. In his October 20 dispatch, Hemingway described the wretched state of the Greeks who were attempting the arduous journey to Greece by foot:

In a never-ending, staggering march, the Christian population of Eastern Thrace is jamming the roads toward Macedonia. The main column crossing the Maritza River at Adrianople is 20 miles long. Twenty miles of carts drawn by cows, bullocks and muddy-flanked water buffalo, with exhausted, staggering men, women and children, blankets over their heads, walking blindly along in the rain beside their worldly goods.25

In 2013, the New South Wales Legislative Council in Australia recognized the genocide of Greeks in the former Ottoman Empire while in 2015, the State of South Dakota Legislative Assembly of the U.S.A followed suit. While it is heartening that recent recognition of the genocide of Ottoman Greeks has been done in an inclusive manner, i.e., recognition of all Greeks regardless of region, the genocide of the Greeks of Eastern Thrace still remains unknown to many and deserves more scholarly research.

The Greeks of Ganochora fleeing their homeland, 1922. Source: Photographic archive EΛΙΑ-ΜΙΕΤ

 

Evacuation of the Greeks of Gallipoli, 18 November 1922.

 


 

1. Hofmann, T 2011, The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks, Caratzas USA, 50.
2. Greek Patriarchate 1919, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918, Constantinople 1919, 19-20.
3. Archimandrite Alexander Papadopoulos 1919, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War, Oxford University Press, New York, 91.
4. Arch. Alexander Papadopoulos, ibid, 98-99.
5. Greek Patriarchate 1919, ibid, 31.
6. Arsenis Paraskakis, The Roots of Thrace, Neohori Peristasis, Viewed 29 March 2016,  http://neoxoriperistasis.blogspot.com.au/2014_02_01_archive.html
7. American Hellenic Society, 1918, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War, Oxford University Press, 35.
8. File No 391, 867.4016/123, American Embassy Constantinople to the Secretary of State Washington, 10 August 1915.
9. Turks Turned Against Greek, 700,000 Suffer, The Evening Independent. 17 October 1917, 6.
10.American Hellenic Society 1918, ibid, 40-41.
11.Ibid, 41.
12.Ibid.
13.Greek Patriarchate 1919, ibid, 16.
14.American Hellenic Society, ibid, 42-43.
15.Greek Patriarchate 1919, ibid, 10.
16.Ibid.
17.Stürmer, H 1917, Two War Years in Constantinople, George H. Doran and Co, New York. 169.
18.Yeghiayan, V (comp.) 2007, British Reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia: 1919-1922, Center for Armenian Remembrance, USA, 49.
19.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 68.
20.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 82.
21.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 102.
22.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 112.
23.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 132.
24.Yeghiayan, V, ibid, 155.
25.Hemingway, E 1922, A Silent, Ghastly Procession, The Toronto Daily Star, 20 October.

The Greek Genocide (or Ottoman Greek Genocide) refers to the systematic extermination of the native Greek subjects of the Ottoman Empire before, during and after World War I (1914-1923). It was instigated by two successive governments of the Ottoman Empire; the Committee of Union and Progress Party (C.U.P), and the Turkish Nationalist Movement of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.  It included massacres, forced deportations and death marches, summary expulsions, boycotts, rape, forced conversion to Islam, conscription into labor battalions, arbitrary executions, and destruction of Christian Orthodox cultural, historical and religious monuments. According to various sources, approximately 1 million Ottoman Greeks perished during this period.

The New York Times: January 13, 1915.

The first phase of the Greek Genocide commenced in the Spring of 1914 in Eastern Thrace and western Anatolia when Turks were ordered to boycott Greek businesses. Hundreds of thousands of Greeks from these regions were also deported. With the outbreak of the Great War in July of 1914, all Ottoman Greek men aged between 21-45 were conscripted into forced labor (or concentration) camps. Most of these men were to perish under appalling conditions after being forced to work around the clock with little food or water. These camps also served as a means of breaking up and disarming Greek communities, thus bringing about their eventual destruction. 

In 1915, under the guidance of German military personnel, the C.U.P ordered the deportation of Greek communities from the Dardanelles and Gallipolli regions under the pretext of military necessity. These Greeks were not permitted to take anything with them. Goods in their shops were later sold by Ottoman authorities. Entire communities living along the western coastline of Asia Minor were deported to the interior or to Muslim villages where they were forced to choose between Islam or death. Homes in villages that were not burnt were seized by freebooters of neighboring communities. In some instances, Greeks were forced to sign declarations saying they were leaving of their own free will. In most cases, before deportations took place, Ottoman gendarmes (police) and çetes (armed irregulars) seized money and valuables from communities, committed massacres and burnt churches and schools. In the region of Pontus, Greek communities were deported during the peak of winter when fatalities could be at their highest. Stories of lethal injections, bodies being towed out to sea and dumped, as well as mass killings of Greeks in churches were also witnessed and documented.

The New York Times: 10 July 1921.

According to the Chairman of the Greek Relief Committee Frank W. Jackson, by 1917 some 700,000-800,000 Greeks were deported mainly from the coastal regions to the interior of Turkey. The death toll from these deportations was high. With the Ottoman Empire's defeat in WW1, prominent leaders of the C.U.P Party were given death sentences in Ottoman Courts-Martial for their role in organizing the massacre of Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians during the war. But the post-war formation of the Turkish Nationalist movement under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk interrupted the proceedings to bring these perpetrators to justice. Instead, the Kemalist Nationalists continued the C.U.P policy of massacring and deporting Greeks which culminated in the burning of the city of Smyrna (today Izmir) to the ground and the expulsion of all remaining Greeks from Turkey. All able-bodied Greek males were refused exit from Turkey and were sent to the interior where most perished in slave labor camps or were massacred.

 

Remembrance days:

April 6 (Eastern Thrace region)
May 19 (Pontus region)
September 14 (Asia Minor as a whole).

 

The following map depicts massacres of Greeks during the Greek Genocide. It does not include deaths resulting from deportations and labor battalions (concentration camps). This mapping project was created by the Greek Genocide Resource Center in April 2017 and is an ongoing project. 

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Students and researchers are encouraged to use the Tags and Smart Search functions of the website. The process of tagging is not yet complete. Tags appear below articles on the site while the Search box appears on the inner right section of the site.

 

Mark H. Ward was a Near East Relief physician who witnessed the deportation of Greeks during the Greek Genocide. He and other relief workers were expelled by the Kemalists for keeping notes on the deportations. Between May 1921 and February 1922, while working at the American Hospital in Elazığ, Ward witnessed 38 groups of deportees who were sent through the town in the Harput province.

Ward stated that out of a total of 20,378 that reached Elazığ, 18,000 or 88% were Ottoman Greeks and the remainder Armenians.  He estimated that 30,000 were sent from Sivas to Elazığ and that 5,000 of those escaped from the convoys while another 5,000 died along the road. During the fall and winter months there were 4,000 deportees in Malatya alone. 2,000 of those at Malatya died of starvation or typhus. During the 7 months he was working in the American Hospital at Elazığ, 25% of the 1,300 refugees he cared for died. Of the 15,000 refugees who were sent south to Diyarbakir only 12,000 arrived safely, the remaining 3,000 died in the snow covered mountains. 2,000 refugees stayed at Diyarbakir during winter and half of them died from starvation, disease or exposure. Of the 30,000 who left Sivas only 10,000 arrived at Bitlis.

Note: Deportation lines on the map are a guide and may differ slightly. Deportations often intersected neighbouring towns and villages before reaching destination. Deportations from regions whose current place names couldn't be verified such as Koppy, Hadign and Endemish are not shown. 

 

A list of the deportations witnessed by Mark H. Ward.

DATE

NUMBER

FROM

SENT TO

26 May 1921

10 Greeks, 6 Armenians

Konya, Kayseri, Amasya (via Sivas)

Elazig then Diyarbakir and Bitlis

29 May 1921

100 Greeks, 30 Armenians (originally 300)

Bilecik

Elazig

3 Jun 1921

125 Greeks, 187 Armenians

Eskisehir, Kutahya (via Sivrihisar)

Elazig

13 Jun 1921

200 Greeks, 374 Armenians

Eskisehir, Bilecek, Sivrihisar, Kutahya, Afyonkarahisar

Elazig

20 Jun 1921

10 men

Konya

Elazig

27 Jun 1921

50 Greeks, 300 Armenians

Konya (via Malatya and Sivas)

Elazig

4 Jul 1921

170 Greeks, 280 Armenians

Aksehir

Elazig

17 Jul 1921

456 Greeks, 204 Armenians

Konya

Elazig

19 Jul 1921

302 Greeks, 300 Armenians

Afyonkarahisar, Aksehir, Karaman, Eregli, Haymans, Kutahya, Eskisehir, Konya

Elazig

18 Jul 1921

722 Greeks

Ordu, Giresun

Elazig then Bitlis and Van.

25 Jul 1921

496 Greek men

Ordu, Giresun

Elazig

28 Jul 1921

161 Greeks

Giresun

Elazig

4 Aug 1921

64 Greeks

Ordu

Elazig then Bitlis

4 Aug 1921

2000 mostly women and children

Zara (Vilayet of Sivas)

Elazig

21 Aug 1921

22 men

Ordu, Giresun

Elazig

27 Aug 1921

80 people

Tepecik (near Samsun)

Elazig

27 Aug 1921

1230 mostly women and children

Amasya, Havza, Iledig, Merzifon, Torpojuk and villages of Samsun

Elazig then Bitlis or Van

30 Aug 1921

1650 Greeks (women and children)

Merzifon and villages between there and Samsun

Elazig then Bitlis

31 Aug 1921

1284 people

Merzifon, Havza, Amasya, Koppy, Hadign

Elazig the Bitlis

9 Sep 1921

200 people

Eskisehir, Kutahya

Elazig

21 Sep 1921

48 Greeks, 4 Armenians

Konya

Elazig then sent south

24 Sep 1921

169 Greeks

Samsun, Vezirkopru etc

Elazig

26 Sep 1921

385 men and women

Konya

Elazig then sent south

28 Sep 1921

125 men

Konya, Karaman, Eregli, Nigde, Kayseri

Elazig then Bitlis

4 Oct 1921

160 men

Samsun

Elazig then Diyarbakir

4 Oct 1921

136 men

Konya

Elazig

9 Oct 1921

43 men

Ordu

Elazig

16 Oct 1921

600 people

Unknown

Elazig then Diyarbakir

23 Oct 1921

77 people

Unknown

Elazig then Osmaniye

6 Nov 1921

68 men

Konya

Elazig

6 Nov 1921

Group

Gumushacikoy

Elazig then Osmaniye

10 Nov 1921

1700 (originally 2000)

Arabkir road

Elazig then Bitlis

11 Nov 1921

154 men

Eregli, Karaman

Elazig

15 Nov 1921

1500 men, women and children

Unknown

Elazig

18 Nov 1921

850 women and children

Sivas Vilayet

Elazig

18 Nov 1921

30 men

Gumushacikoy

Elazig

19 Nov 1921

350 women and children

Malatya

Elazig then Bitlis

24 Nov 1921

700 women and children

Ordu, Sivas

Elazig then Bitlis

8 Dec 1921

80 men

Osmaniye

Elazig

13 Dec 1921

1400 (originally 2,500 when they left Kayseri)

Ordu, Giresun, Amasya, Isparta, Burdur, Endemish

Elazig. Twice deported to Bitlis

15 Dec 1921

600 Greeks

Sivas

Elazig then Diyarbakir

31 Dec 1921

300 men and women

Konya

Elazig then Bitlis

15 Feb 1922

100 people

Malatya

Elazig then Bitlis

Source: The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922.

 

List and map compiled by the Greek Genocide Resource Center

 

The Greek Genocide involved the persecution of native Greeks living in the Ottoman Empire. While deportation to the arid interior of Turkey was the more effective way to liquidate Greek communities en masse, small and large-scale massacres were also committed. Below is a list of known massacres perpetrated during the Greek Genocide.  An interactive map of the massacres can be viewed here.

A massacre can be generally considered as being an indiscriminate and brutal killing of many people. In order to better define the term 'many people' we have chosen 20 as being the minimum number of people killed in order for a mass killing to qualify as a massacre, unless the massacre involved children, notables, wealthy citizens or religious clergy.  

The following sources were used to compile the list:  

- Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. 

- Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, New York 1918. 

- Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople: Press of the Patriarchate, 1920. 

- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. 

- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. 

- The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek.  

- Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. 

- Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1902-1921. Cosmos 2016

- Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans. Paris 1922.  

- Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923. 

- Central Council of Pontus. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus. Athens 1922. 

 

LIST OF MASSACRES 

1913

Kiscasalih

Kiscasalih (Mega Zaloufi): 130 inhabitants killed when Ottoman forces reoccupied the town.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.13. 

 

Gönence

July: The Ottoman Army entered Gönence (Καλύβια) and looted all the houses and killed all the Christians they met. The village and neighborhood was full of corpses of men, women and children.

Source: ALLEGED TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1913, September 13). The Express and Telegraph (Adelaide, SA : 1867 - 1922), p. 6. Retrieved November 28, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article21011262

 

Malkara

July: Turkish soldiers massacre 300 Greeks at a rich monastery. Eighteen Greek villages also wiped out.

Source: Turks Massacre Greeks in Thrace. The New York Times, 28 July 1913, p. 3.

 

1914

Seyrek 

May: The village, located in the district of Menemen, was besieged by thousands of armed Turks before it was set fire to and its inhabitants massacred. Women and children were literally butchered.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. pp. 79-80. 

 

Didymoteicho 

May: Massacre of women and children. Those trying to escape the massacre crossed the Maritsa (Meriç) River and drowned after being shot at. 

Source: SLAUGHTER OF GREEKS. (1914, May 19). The Bendigo Independent (Vic. : 1891 - 1918), p. 5. 

 

Foça 

June: Armed irregulars stormed the town of Foça (Gr: Phocaea). With the assistance of Ottoman officials approximately 100 Greeks including priests and children were massacred. The town was then looted. The remainder fled. 

Sources: GREEKS MASSACRED (1914, June 17). The Journal (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1923), p. 1 (4 P.M. EDITION). Retrieved November 4, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article204671244 

- Bjørnlund, M. Cited from The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012, pp153-154. 

 

Uzunada 

July: Turkish regular troups drive 16 Greeks to the town square where they are butchered. Two girls (14 and 17 y.o)  successively violated by 25 soldiers). 

Sources: GREEKS MASSACRED. (1914, July 22). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), p. 6. Retrieved September 6, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article175971928  

-Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p 86. 

 

Erzurum 

December: Greeks and Armenians hanged without trial. Their corpses suspended from lamp posts for weeks. Turks passing by spat on their bodies and compelled the Christians to do likewise.  

Source: Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate, 15 Dec 1914, p.5. 

 

Ayvalik 

December: Greeks massacred at Ayvalik. Houses pillaged and shops burned. 

Source: The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.), 17 Dec. 1914. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045433/1914-12-17/ed-1/seq-1/> 

 

1915

Burhaniye

March: 60 Christian families massacred at Burhaniye (Gr: Kemeri).  

Source: The Daytona daily news. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93063916/1915-03-15/ed-1/seq-1/> 

 

Ayvalik

March: Massacre of 40 Greeks. 

Source: The Daytona Daily News. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93063916/1915-03-15/ed-1/seq-1/> 

 

Gümüshane

April: 4,000 Greeks from the region escaped from Turkish military authorities and sought refuge in the forests of Gümüshane . Hard pressed by hunger, some managed to flee towards Russia while the remainder were caught, tortured then massacred, their bodies thrown into the Pyxites River.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p109.  

 

Bodrum 

June:  18 inhabitants and one girl aged 16 slaughtered. 

Source: Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.30. 

 

Kiosteniou 

July: 18 Greeks butchered at Kiosteniou. 

Source: Carroll N. Brown Ph.D and Theodore P. Ion D.C.L. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Since the Beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918, p.33. 

 

İzmit 

September: Turks set fire to İzmit and conduct a general massacre of the population. 

Source: TURKISH MASSACRE. (1915, September 6). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), p. 7. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article20089650  

 

Gölcük 

November: The village was surrounded by soldiers and gendarmes who opened fire causing villagers to flee to the mountains. They then set fire to the village. As villagers fled in terror, 30 were shot and killed at point blank range. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p.40. 

 

1916

Edirne 

April: Massacre of 400 Greeks. 

Source: GREEK MASSACRES. (1916, April 27). The Evening Telegraph (Charters Towers, Qld. : 1901 - 1921), p. 5. Retrieved October 25, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212815360 

 

İzmir 

April: Massacre of 200 Greeks in the İzmir (Gr: Smyrna) district. 

Source: MASSACRE OF GREEKS. (1916, April 22). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 - 1928), p. 7. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article152760190  

 

Maçka 

April: The Vazelon Monastery in Maçka was the sight of a massacre of 487 people, mostly women and children who had been hiding in the forest. They were captured, violated within the monastery, and then massacred. Men were also murdered. The church was then burnt and destroyed, its furniture carried away, its bibles and archives burnt to cinders. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 111. 

 

Trabzon 

April: Hundreds of Greeks and Armenians massacred in the Christian quarter of Trabzon. 

Source: MASSACRE OF CHRISTIANS BEFORE EVACUATION OF TREBIZOND (1916, April 21). Daily Herald (Adelaide, SA : 1910 - 1924), p. 5. Retrieved November 3, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article124874666  

 

1917

Bafra 

October: After distributing arms to Turkish peasants, Greeks, including children were massacred. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 124. 

 

1918

Rize 

Turkish bands attacked Rize and massacred some of the population. Schools, churches and houses were plundered and demolished. Residents were compelled to emigrate to Russia. Out of 2,000 people only 4 remained.    

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. The Hesperia Press, London 1919. p. 113. 

 

1919

Buca 

March: Reports of many murders and robberies by bands of Turks against Greeks in the region. The bodies of 50 Greeks found decapitated and partially burned. 

Source: Great Unrest Reported Over Disposition of Smyrna Region, The New York Times, 21 March 1919. Web. <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F0DE3DC1331E433A25752C2A9659C946896D6CF>  

 

Nazilli 

June: Massacre of several Greek families. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.10. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Atça 

June: 47 Greeks massacred and the priest burned alive. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Köşk 

June: 47 people massacred in Köşk, including a doctor and the priest, who was first blinded and had his nose and ears cut off. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Umurlu 

June: More than 90 Greeks massacred at Umurlu and 70 bodies found. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.22. Web. 24 Oct. 2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Karapelit 

June: All the young children of the village were taken to a place close to the Black Sea near the village Hocaali. They were then placed in a circle and shot while musical instruments were played loudly.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.293.  

 

Aydin 

June: Massacre of approx. 1,500-2,000 Greeks by Kemalist forces in June 1919. Hundreds of bodies found burnt alive, some after having been raped, and bodies found thrown into wells. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. Document 3, No 33, p.12. Web. 20/07/2017. <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Çantaköy

August: Turkish gendarmes and bandits surround Greek town of Çantaköy (Gr: Tsento) and massacre Greeks.  

Source: Turks Massacre Greeks, Alexandria Gazette, 12 Aug 1919, p.3.   

 

Manisa 

c1919: 115 Greeks massacred by Turkish gangs in the Manisa region. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.  <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Alaşehir 

c1919: 47 murders reported in Alaşehir and neighboring regions. 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.26. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.  <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Halitpaşa 

Mass slaughter of Greeks at Halitpaşa (Gr: Papazli). 

Source: Documents of the Inter-Allied Commission of Inquiry into the Greek Occupation of Smyrna and Adjoining Territories. p.24. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.  <http://www.ataa.org/reference/iacom.pdf> 

 

Ilgin 

7-8 wealthy elected Greek notables were hanged by Turkish authorities.   

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.363. 

 

Kaklik 

Summer: 15 wealthy Greek men from Honaz are shot at the gorge of Kaklik deresi and their valuables taken.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.417.  

 

Yenipazar 

70 Greeks massacred and thrown in the Meander river.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.177. 

 

Ankara 

Late 1919 or 1920: Notables and elders taken to a nearby location and massacred.   

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.377. 

 

1920

Emirdağ 

c1920: 50 Greeks found massacred. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.395.  

 

Tekirdağ 

March: Large number of Greeks massacred at Tekirdağ. 

Source: Report Turks Killed Many at Rodosto, The New York Times, 4 March 1920. Web. <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F0CE0DA103BEE32A25757C0A9659C946195D6CF> 

 

Sarköy 

March: Massacre of Greeks and Armenians at Sarköy (or Şar, also spelt Shahr). 

Source: Yeghiayan, V.  British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.139. 

 

Karakavuz

May: The Greek village was surrounded, plundered and all inhabitants massacred except very few. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920, p.142.  

 

Findikli 

June: Kemalists surrounded the four Greek villages of Findikli (Gr: Foundouklia). The men were shut up in a church and ordered to come out in fives and were shot. Of the population of 3,400, 400 men and 30 women were massacred.  

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.167. 

 -Faltaits, K.  The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 71-74.  

 

Fulacik 

June: Nationalist Kemalist forces accompanied by the gendarmerie entered the village and proceeded to loot and burn houses and massacre its inhabitants. Three hundred men including boys as young as 14 were locked in the village church before it was doused with petrol and set alight.  

Source: Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1902-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 43-51. 

 

Mersin 

Around June: Greeks and Armenians living in the districts near Mersin were massacred.  

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.152. 

 

Yukariyapici 

June: 22 Greek men massacred at Yukariyapici (Ano Neochori). 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate 1920, p.116. 

 

Nazilli 

June: Approximately 162 Greeks were either massacred or burned to death in their homes when Kemalist soldiers and the gendarmerie (police) put fire to the Greek quarter of Nazilli. 

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate 1920, p.103. 

 

Erbaa 

June: Vast massacre of the Greek male population of Erbaa under the command of Kemalist Military Commander Topal Osman. All men aged between 15-70 years were gathered at the home of notable Greek Anastas efendi, or the Armenian church, and were executed. Bodies were disposed of in the forest. Only those hiding in the mountains escaped the massacre.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.194, 196 and 206.  

 

Geyve 

July: Kemalist Nationalist forces massacre hundreds of Greeks and Armenians at Geyve.  

Source: TURKISH ATROCITIES. (1920, July 31). The Maitland Daily Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1939), p. 5. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127337896 

 

Simav

July: Kemalist forces enter Simav and 15 Greek notables are massacred. 240 inhabitants then deported to Kütahya, but 5 minutes from Simav all were massacred except 25 who managed to escape. 

Sources: - Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920, p.111-112.  

- The Exodus: Testimonies from the regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor, Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek, p.421. 

 

Yozgat

July: Kemalist forces massacred 60 Greeks and 20 Armenians at Yozgat. Some were crucified. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.161. 

 

Sernits 

Summer: 18 Greek men massacred.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.151. 

 

İznik 

August: Turkish irregulars massacred approx. 600 Greeks of İznik (Gr: Nicaea). Their slaughtered bodies were later found burnt out in a cave just outside the town. The town's church was also destroyed, not before women were raped on the altar.   

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.172. 

 

Osmaneli 

August: Wholesale massacre. Out of 800 Greeks very few survived. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.299.   

 

Bolu 

August: Kurds surround the Armenian quarter where there were 20 Greek families. They pillaged the houses, then shut the men up in the Armenian church, killed the women and then set fire to the church and the whole town. Very few survived. 80 Greeks were massacred. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.167. 

 

Oçoglu 

September: Kemalist army entered Oçoglu near Yozgat and gathered all villagers into the church. They then raped all women and girls in the presence of their fathers, husbands and brothers and massacred all of them, 280 in number.  

Source: Ecumenical Patriarchate, Constantinople. The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920, p.75.  

 

Geyve 

October: About 30 Christians, mostly Greeks massacred by Nationalists. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.175. 

 

Saraçli 

At Saraçli (Gr: Houdi) women and girls were locked in a church where those who weren't killed were raped. Women and children were tied up and shot. Men were massacred en masse 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.327.  

 

Ortaköy 

The town of some 10,000 Greeks was completely burnt to the ground in 1920. The majority of the 10,000 Greeks were massacred. Atrocities included rape, be-headings as well as massacre via the use of knives and hatchets. 

Source: Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 91-98. 

 

Vezirköprü 

October: Burning of villages and massacre of inhabitants. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.179. 

 

Hacibey 

c1920: Wholesale massacre under the command of Kemalist Military Commander Topal Osman. Adults were locked up in barns churches and schools and burned alive. Children were unclothed then thrown in wells and rocks thrown over them. Women were taken to a cliff overlooking a river, were undressed then with knives, axes and bullets attacked and thrown into the river. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.221.  

 

Toraman 

c1920-1921: 32 Greek men including a priest, from nearby Upper Ovacik and Kavuklu were burned by Kemalist regulars. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.273.  

 

1921

Kontzes 

February: Attacked by nationalist Kemalist forces under the command of Cemal (Djemal) of Iznik. Inhabitants slaughtered while homes were burnt to the ground. 

Source: K. Faltaits. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp.75-80. 

 

Kayseri 

March: Kemalist forces commit 3 day massacre of Christians. 

Source: TERRIBLE MASSACRES (1921, March 22). The Bathurst Times (NSW : 1909 - 1925), p. 2. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111536870  

 

Niksar 

May: Massacre of Greeks at Niksar under the command of Kemalist Military Commander Topal Osman.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Central Regions of Pontus. Volume C. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2013. In Greek. p.272, 274, 289.  

 

Alaçam 

May: The Turks imprisoned the Christian male population above the age of 12 then massacred them. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.236. 

 

Samsun 

June: Massacres reported at Samsun where the streets are strewn with bodies of Greeks.  

Source: GREEKS AND TURKS. (1921, June 6). Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 - 1949), p. 3. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article190908100 

 

Merzifon 

July: The Mayor of Giresun, the notorious Topal Osman, and his band of 'cut-throats' entered Merzifon and massacred approximately 1,000 Greeks and Armenians in a massacre that lasted 4 days. The bodies were later dumped and buried in pits in the Christian cemetery.  

Source: Shenk, R. America's Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press 2012, pp. 103-105.   

 

Adaköy 

July: Men, women and children were herded into houses which were then set on fire. All those who escaped were shot. 600 massacred. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.211-212. 

 

Samsun 

July: One village burned by Nationalists and 82 bodies of men, women and children found floating in the Kizil Irmak River. 

Source: Turks Massacre 82 Greeks, New Mexico state record. (Santa Fe, N.M.), 22 July 1921. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93061701/1921-07-22/ed-1/seq-2/> 

 

Kartepe 

The town was first looted on the 15th of May 1920, but on the 25th of March 1921, Kemalist forces returned and continued the looting and massacred the population. 

Source: Faltaits, K. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia(Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos 2016, pp. 65-69. 

 

Kavak 

August: 1,300 Greeks shot in two and a half hours at Kavak.   

Source: Rendel, W. British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print. Part II, Series B, Volume 3. University Publications of America, 1985, p.85. 

 

Çakalli 

c1921: Women and children locked up in houses of the village and  burnt alive. 

Source: Central Council of Pontus. Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus. Athens 1922. p.20. 

 

Kocadağ

August: Kemalists set fire to Greek villages. Nearly 3,000 inhabitants burned alive in flaming houses they were prevented from escaping. 

Source: TURKS MASSACRE CHRISTIANS. (1921, August 27). The Maitland Weekly Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1931), p. 13. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127128042  

 

Bafra 

August: Massacre of 2,000 within 8 days. 

Source: Yeghiayan, V. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.222.  

 

Kurtsuyu 

September: Kurtuyu and neighbouring Christian villages pillaged then burned. Many old men and women burnt alive.  

Source: Yeghiayan, V.  British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.227.  

 

Samsun 

September: Turks kill 466 Greek refugees who were in a convoy that was destined for the coast. 

Source: TURKS MASSACRE REFUGEES. (1921, September 8). Recorder (Port Pirie, SA : 1919 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article95377253  

 

Bafra 

October: Greek villages burnt, men massacred, men and women deported in Bafra district.  

Source: GREEKS MASSACRED. (1921, October 19). Daily Standard (Brisbane, Qld. : 1912 - 1936), p. 4 (SECOND EDITION). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article184952873  

 

Samsun 

November: 300 Greeks massacred at Samsun. 

Source: MASSACRE OF GREEKS. (1921, November 26). Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article195339049  

 

1922

Samsun 

April: Massacre of Christians at Samsun. Nationalists surrounded and set fire to the Greek quarters, shooting at those who fled.  

Source: Massacre of Greeks by Turks, The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.), 18 April 1922. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. <http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82014689/1922-04-18/ed-1/seq-1/>   

 

Kavak 

June: 1,300 Christian women and children taken to the interior of Turkey and all massacred. 

Source: MASSACRE OF CHILDREN (1922, June 15). Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tas. : 1883 - 1928), p. 5. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article153325764  

 

Akçay 

August/September: Greeks from Edremit who were waiting at Akçay for transport out of Turkey were taken to a gorge near Araplar and killed. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek., p.229. 

 

İzmir 

On the 13th of September 1922, nationalist Kemalist forces entered the city, set fire to it, and proceeded to massacre its Greek and Armenian population. Estimates range from 10,000 to 100,000 killed. 

Sources: Numerous accounts and news reports.  

 

Çakallar 

September:  600 mine workers from the nearby Balya mines are slaughtered with the strike of a bayonet beside trenches that were prepared the day prior. The corpses were then set on fire and Kemalist soldiers remained at the scene for 2 or 3 days until they were completely burned. 

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, pp.43-44. 

 

Urla 

September: A wholesale massacre of Greeks. Females raped and abducted.  

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, pp.35-41.

 

Güre 

September: Massacre of Greeks who were awaiting for ships to exit Turkey.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.236. 

 

Dereköy 

September: Massacre of Greeks who were ordered to a gorge at nearby Havran and were all shot.   

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.238. 

 

Çoruk 

September: All 200 residents were massacred. The villagers were taken to a place called Valanithia just past Frengioy where they were all shot.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.245. 

 

Biga 

September: A wholesale massacre of Greeks at nearby Yenice (or Intzekioy) that started one evening and ended the following morning.   

Source:The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.257. 

 

Havran 

September: Sizeable number of Greeks from Havran (Grk: Freneli) escaped to nearby Akçay, near Edremit (see Akçay 1922) where a large proportion of them were killed en masse. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.247.  

 

Balikesir 

September: Wholesale massacre of Greeks. Hundreds of girls abducted.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.263.  

 

Elpizli 

September: Massacre of Greeks. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. P.338. 

Note: No longer on current map. Location approximate and based on available information. 

 

Bahçecik 

September: 105 Greek males from Şile were marched to a Turkish village just outside of Bahçecik where they were to be slaughtered but locals complained. They were taken to a nearby field, unclothed and slaughtered with knives. One male survived. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.344. 

 

Pınarbaşı 

September: Massacre of Greeks.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.25. 

 

Çesme 

September: Greeks who were unable to flee in time on vessels were massacred. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.70. 

 

Yağcılar 

September: Massacre of Greeks. The perpetrators were Turks from the neighboring Turkish villages of Kuskular and Salaptalar. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.71. 

 

Alibey Adasi 

September: Wholesale massacre of Greeks just outside of town. Many men and women executed by gunshot.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.96,100.  

 

Bergama 

September: Massacre of 800 Greeks at Agia Kastriani, Teke-Bugaz, Sayindere, Ay Yianni, Kayiatzikia and Yigma-Tepe.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.140.  

 

Bademli 

September: Over 100 Greeks massacred. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.142. 

 

Çandarli 

September: Massacre of Greeks. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.143. 

 

Kavuklu 

A massacre of Greeks. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.271.  

 

Dikili 

September: Wholesale massacre of Greeks along the shores of Dikili. The massacre was so violent the shoreline was strewn with the blood and bones of the massacred victims. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of the Western Shoreline of Asia Minor. Volume A. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 1980. In Greek. p.145. 

 

Akhisar

September: Wholesale massacre of men, women and children. The women and children were massacred with machine guns in a nearby ravine under the eyes of the local Muslim population who arrived to watch the spectacle from surrounding heights. 

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, p.45.  

 

Balikesir Province 

September: Upon the arrival of a division of the Kemalist regular army under the command of Kiarim Bey, the Christians  of Balya Maden and Balikesir were assembled on the 18th of September to be deported to Ankara. Instead they were massacred somewhere between Balya Maden and Karaağaç. Wells and ditches were opened and corpses were thrown in and burned. The victims amounted to several thousand.  

Source: Puaux, René. Les derniers jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923, pp.41-42. 

 

Ezine 

October: A telegram from Çanakkale reported a general massacre of Greeks at Ezine. 

Source: GREEKS SPEEDING UP REMOVAL OF REFUGEES (1922, October 16). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article45586377 

 

Urum Çiftlik 

November: Massacre of 13 Greeks.  

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.531.  

Note: This is the approximate location based on available information.  

 

Bereketli Maden 

November: 35 men including three 13 year old children were taken to a place near Yelatan and massacred.  Around the same time, 100 carpenters from Bereketli Maden were also massacred in various places further south in the Cilicia region. 

Source: The Exodus: Testimonies from the Regions of Central and Southern Asia Minor. Volume B. Center of Asia Minor Studies, Athens 2004. In Greek. p.268.  

 

1923

Gürümze 

Massacre of 125 Greeks. Residents were ordered to gather outside the town's church where they were ordered to hand over their valuables. They were then locked inside the church which was then torched. Some were slaughtered with a scimitar. Among the dead were 3 priests. 

Source: Kenanides, L. The Settlement of Asia Minor Refugees from Cappadocia in the villages of (Nea) Aravisou, (Nea) Axou and Neos Milotopos in the province of Yiannitsa. In Greek. Thessaloniki 2008, A, pp.152-153. 

 

Unknown location 

Guioz-Keuy 1921 

November: Seven priests from Alacam, Bafra and outlying districts were arrested and after being publicly tortured, were crucified at the market place.  

Source: V. Yeghiayan, British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007. p.236. 

 

Yarn of a Cargo of Human Bones: The New York Times (Dec 23, 1924)

 

In 2013, historian Vlassis Agtzidis uncovered three newspaper reports from 1924 which described how the administration of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk sent 400 tonnes of human remains (approximately 50,000 human bodies) to the port of Marseilles, France aboard a British flagged ship. The reports appeared in The New York Times, the French Midi newspaper and the Greek newspaper Macedonia. The news reports describe how the human remains originated from the port of Mudanya on the Sea of Marmara in Turkey. Agtzidis argues that the remains of these dead bodies may have been destined for industrial use.

The practice of turning human bones into fertilizer was not an uncommon one in the early part of the 19th century. In fact it occurred following the battle of Waterloo (1815). In The Independent newspaper of 3 Aug 2014, Robert Fisk wrote:

After Waterloo, the bones of the dead – Wellington’s Britons and Napoleon’s French and Blücher’s Prussians – were freighted back to Hull to use as fertilizer for England’s green and pleasant land, military mulch from the 1815 battlefields which also yielded fresh teeth to be reused as dentures for the living.

Research by Joe Turner in March 2015 based on archival news reports also revealed credible evidence that an international bone trade did in fact exist during the 19th century.

According to Agtzidis, France was pro-Turkish during the period in question so therefore it wouldn't have been an ethical issue for the French to purchase the bones of dead victims for industrial use.

The New York Times article of December 23, 1924 wrote:

Marseilles is excited by a weird story of the arrival in that port of a ship flying the British flag and named the Zan carrying a mysterious cargo of 400 tons of human bones consigned to manufacturers there. The bones are said to have been loaded at Mudania on the Sea of Marmora and to be the remains of the victims of massacres in Asia Minor. In view of the rumors circulating it is expected that an inquiry will be instigated.

About the load in question, the French newspaper Midi published a news report titled A Mournful Load' in which it stated:

There is much debate happening at present in Marseille about the forthcoming arrival aboard the cargo ship Zan of a cargo of human remains which is transporting 400 tonnes of human remains for the industries in Marseilles. These human remains are coming from Armenian massacre camps in Turkey and from Asia Minor in particular.

 Midi Newspaper,Cargaison funebre (A Mournful Load).

 

On the 24th of December 1924 the Greek newspaper Macedonia reported that the Zan did in fact arrive at the port of Thessaloniki, however the contents of the cargo were not publicly reported. Thessaloniki at the time was overflowing with genocide survivors, so it is possible that authorities chose to keep the cargo's contents a secret so as not to aggrieve the survivors of the genocide.

Despite this, workers at the Thessaloniki port were aware of the cargo. In his book titled Chronicles of the Great Tragedy, C. Angelomatis states that workers at the port reacted to the cargo’s contents but Greek authorities weren't allowed to take action due to British intervention.

Angelomatis wrote:

Athenian newspapers published the news as follows: 'The docking into the port of Thessaloniki of the English ship Zan from Mudania has transferred four hundred tons of dead Greek bodies. The workers at the port who made the revelation prevented the ship from sailing away, but the British consul intervened and the ship was allowed to sail on'.

Angelomatis added:

They were the bones of Greek heroes ... they were the bones of our Greek soldiers who were either killed en masse or were made to die slowly in extermination camps, the worst of which was the camp of Usak.

 

Subcategories

The perpetrators of the Greek Genocide were responsible for planning and executing the destruction of Greek communities during the genocide. They include members of the Committee of Union and Progress Party, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his nationalist supporters (Kemalists) as well as German military personnel. 

An analysis of some of the regions affected and other documentary evidence.

Quote #2

Winston Churchill (1874-1965) - British Statesman

“... Mustapha Kemal's Army ... celebrated their triumph by the burning of Smyrna to ashes and by a vast massacre of its Christian population...”

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