The following books and documents are freely available to read online.
|The Deportation of Ottoman Greeks in 1915. File 867.4016/12. 1915.||Read|
|Stuermer, H. Two War Years in Constantinople. London, 1917.||Read|
|Morgenthau, H. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Doubleday 1918.||Read|
|The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. 1918?||Read|
|Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the Beginning of the European War. 1918.||Read|
|Memorandum presented by the Greek members of the Turkish Parliament... 1919.||Read|
|Persecution & Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). 1919.||Read|
|The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. London 1919.||Read|
|The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories. Manchester 1919.||Read|
|Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey Before the European War. New York, 1919.||Read|
|Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914-1918. 1919.||Read|
|The Pontus Question: Memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference... 1920.||Read|
|The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey... Constantinople 1920.||Read|
|Ward M. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London 1922.||Read|
|Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.||Read|
|King W. Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor. Washington 1922.||Read|
|The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom.London 1922.||Read|
|The Martyrdom of the Pontus and the International Public Opinion. Geneva 1922.||Read|
|William C. King. 1,500,000 Greek Christians Massacred or Deported by Turks. 1922.||Read|
|The Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor and in the Pontus. 1922.||Read|
|Anglo-Hellenic League. The Treatment of Greek Prisoners in Turkey. London, 1923.||Read|
|Lovejoy, E. Certain Samaritans. Macmillan Co. 1933.||Read|
|The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York 1924.||Read|
|Horton, G. The Blight of Asia. Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.||Read|
|Bjørnlund M, The 1914 Cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a Case of Violent Turkification||Read|
|Einstein L. Inside Constantinople, New York 1918.||Read|
Documents by Relief Organisations
|Speakers' Handbook of American Committee for Relief in the Near East. 1918.
|The New Near East. Vol. 4, 1920.||Read|
|The New Near East. Vol. 6-7, 1920-1921.||Read|
|The New Near East. Vol. 7. 1921-1922.||Read|
|The New Near East. v. 6-8, 1920/21-1922/23.||Read|
|Hand Book. Near East Relief. New York 1920.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Vol. II, No. 42-51. 1920.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Vol. III, Jan-Dec 1921.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Vol. IV. 1922.||Read|
|The Medical Work of the Near East Relief (1919-1920). New York 1923.||Read|
|Near East Relief. A Review for 1922. New York 1923.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Report to Congress for 1924. New York 1925.||Read|
|Near East Relief. Report to Congress for 1925. New York 1926.||Read|
|Story of Near East relief (1915-1930) an interpretation by James L. Barton. N.Y 1930.
|The Near East: A Discussion Course for Students, 1923.||Read|
|American Workshops in Greece, American Friends of Greece Inc, Washington 1925.||Read|
|Félix Sartiaux. Le Sac de Phocée. Paris 1914.||Read|
|L’Extermination des Chrétiens en Turquie. Lausanne 1918.
|Metr. Chysostomos. Les Persécutions des Chrétiens. 1919.||Read|
|René Puaux. Les Derniers Jours de Smyrne. Paris 1923.
|René Puaux. La Mort de Smyrne, Smyrna 1922.||Read|
|Οι διωγμοί των Ελλήνων εν Θράκη και Μικρασία, Athens 1915.||Read|
|Οι Ανθελληνικοί Διωγμοί εν Τουρκία από της Κηρύξεως του Ευρωπαϊκού Πολέμου. 1917.||Read|
|Μαύρη Βίβλος Διωγμών και Μαρτυρίων του εν Τουρκία Ελληνισμού (1914-1918). 1919.||Read|
|Οι ανθελληνικοί διωγμοί εν Τουρκία από του 1908 μέχρι του 1921. 1921.||Read|
|Ενεπεκίδης Π. Οι Διωγμοί των Ελλήνων του Πόντου (1908-1918). 1962.||Read|
|Αγτζίδης Β. Η Γενοκτονία στην Ανατολή [Genocide in the East]. 2013.||Read|
|Δ. Μπότσαρη, Η Μικρά Ασία και ο Ελληνισμός, 1919.||Read|
In addition to the bibliography below, you can view and download reading material here.
Alaux, Louis-Paul, and Puaux, René. Le déclin de l'hellénisme. Paris, Payot & Cie, 1916.
American Embassy Constantinople, Evacuation of the Different Towns and Villages and Violent Manner of Expelling the Inhabitants. Doc 867.4016/123, August 10, 1915.
Angelou, Michail. Asia Minor Tragedy: An Eye-Witness Testimony. Triti Opsi, Athens 2013.
Anglo-Hellenic League, The Treatment of Greek Prisoners in Turkey: Report of the International Commission of Inquiry appointed at the request of the Greek Red Cross. London, 1923.
Barton, James Levi. Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917. Gomidas, 1998.
Barton, James Levi. Story of Near East Relief (1915-1930): An Interpretation. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1930.
Baum, Wilhelm. The Christian Minorities in Turkey. Kitab-Verlag Klagenfurt-Wien, 2006.
Bierstadt, Edward H. The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.
Bjørnlund Matthias, The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification. Journal of Genocide Research (2008), 10(1), March, 41–57.
Brown, Carroll N, and Ion, Theodore P. Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey since the beginning of the European War. Oxford University Press, 1918.
Central Council of Pontus, Black Book: The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922. Athens 1922.
Compton, Carl C. The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.
Couzinos, Efthimios N. Twenty-three years in Asia Minor. Publishers' graphics, LLC, IL.
Delegation of the Pan-Pontic Congress, The Turkish Atrocities in the Black Sea Territories: Copy of Letter of His Grace Germanos, Lord Archbishop of Amassia and Samsoun. Norbury, Natzio and Co, Manchester 1919.
Diamantopoulos Vasilis, A Prisoner of the Turks (1922-1923), Athens 1977.
Dobkin, Marjorie H. Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.
Doukas, Stratis. A Prisoner of War’s Story. University of Birmingham, Institute of Archaeology & Antiquity Centre for Byzantine, Ottoman & Modern Greek Studies, 1999.
Ecumenical Patriarchate, Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey 1914-1918. Constantinople, 1919. The Hesperia Press.
Ecumenical Patriarchate. Black Book: The Expulsion and Martyrdom of the Greeks of Turkey, 1914-1918. Constantinople 1919.
Ecumenical Patriarchate, The Black Book of the Sufferings of the Greek People in Turkey from the Armistice to the end of 1920. Constantinople Press of the Patriarchate, 1920.
Einstein, Lewis. Inside Constantinople: A Diplomatist’s Diary during the Dardanelles Expedition, April – December 1915. Printed by William Clowes and sons, London, 1917.
Eliou et al. Persecution and Extermination of the Communities of Macri and Livissi (1914-1918). Imprimerie Chaix, Rue Bergère, Paris 1919.
Emmanuelidis, Emmanuel. The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire. Athens 1924.
Enepekides, Polychronis. Oi Diogmoi ton Ellinon tou Pontou (1908-1918). Basei ton anekdoton eggrafon ton kratikon archeion tis Austro-Ouggarias. Syllogos Pontion Argonautai Komninoi, 1962.
Faltaits, Kostas. The Genocide of the Greeks in Turkey: Survivor Testimonies from the Nicomedia (Izmit) Massacres of 1920-1921. Cosmos, 2016.
Fotiadis, Constantinos, ed. The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. 14 vols. Herodotus, 2004.
Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press, 2006.
Georgelin, Hervé. La fin de Smyrne: Du cosmopolitisme aux nationalismes. CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.
Halo, Thea. Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.
Hatzidimitriou, Constantine G. American Accounts Documenting the Destruction of Smyrna by the Kemalist Turkish Forces, Sep 1922. Aristide d Caratzas, 2005.
Hatzigeorgiou, Christos. To Ortakoy Bithynias: Ai Sfages kai i Ksethemeliosis Afton (Ortakoy, Bithynia: The Massacres and Uprooting), Athens 1965.
Hinton, Alexander L, and La Pointe, Thomas, and Irvin-Erickson, Douglas. Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. Rutgers University Press, 2013.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. and Bjornlund, Matthias, ed. and Meichenetsidis, Vasileios, ed. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012.
Hofmann, Tessa, ed. Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian Greeks)
Horton, George. The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.
Ihrig, Stefan. Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination. Belknap Press, 2014.
Kapsi, Yianni. 1922 Ei Mavri Vivlos (1922 The Black Bible), Livani Publishers, 1992.
Kazan, Elia. America America, Stein and Day, 1962.
King, William C, ed. King's Complete History of the World War: Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 1914-1918, The History Associates, Massachusetts, 1922, pp.436-438.
King, William H. Turkish Atrocities in Asia Minor: Speech of Hon. William H. King of Utah in the Senate of the United States, Dec 22, 1921. Washington 1922.
Kontogeorge-Kostos, Sofia. Before the Silence: Archival News Reports of the Christian Holocaust the Begs to be Remembered. Gorgias Press, 2010.
Kyriakides, N.G. The Tragedy of the Sea of Marmora. Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, New York, 1918?
Lepsius ,Johannes. Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.
Lewis, Bernard. The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.
Liman von Sanders, Otto. Five Years in Turkey. United States Naval Institute, 1927.
Llewellyn Smith, Michael. Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.
London Committee of Unredeemed Greeks, The Liberation of the Greek People in Turkey. Norbury, Natzio & Co Ltd, Manchester, London 1919.
Lovejoy, Esther Pohl. Certain Samaritans. The Macmillan Company, 1933.
Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.
Marriott, J.A.R. The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.
Midlarsky, Manus I. The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Milton, Giles. Paradise Lost: Smyrna 1922. The Destruction of Islam's City of Tolerance. Sceptre, 2009.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Page & Company, 1918. Also published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.
Morgenthau, Henry Sr. An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.
De Murat. Jean. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.
Murray, Arthur D. Black Sea: A Naval Officer's Near East Experience. Edited by Renee Heideman. Kindle Digital, 2014.
Oeconomos, Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.
Oeconomos Lysimachos. The Tragedy of the Christian Near East. The Anglo-Hellenic League, London 1923.
L'extermination des Chrétiens d'Orient: faits, documents et témoignages anglais et américains. Thévoz Publisher, 1922.
Papadopoulos, Alexander. Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919.
Pavlides, Ioannis. Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica, Greece, 1980.
Pissanos Antonios. Prisoners of Kemal. Prodos 1978.
Psomiades, Harry J. The Eastern Question: The Last Phase, 2nd ed. Pella publishing 2000.
Puaux, René. Les derniers Jours de Smyrne. Paris, 1923.
Puaux, René. La Mort de Smyrne. Édition de la revue des Balkans.Paris, 1922.
Rendel, George W. Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice. British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO 371/7876. X/PO9194.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Death by Government. Transaction Publishers, 1997.
Rummel, Rudolph J. Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's Democide — Estimates, Calculations and Sources.”
Sartiaux, Félix. Le Sac de Phocée: et l'expulsion des Grecs Ottomans D'Asie-Mineure en Juin 1914. Paris 1914.
Sartiaux, Félix. Phocaea 1913-1920. The account of Félix Sartiaux. Rizario Idrima, 2008.
Schaller, Dominik J, ed. Zimmerer, Jürgen, ed. Late Ottoman Genocides: The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies. Routledge, 2009.
Shaw, S.J. and Shaw, E.K. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.
Shenk, Robert. America's Black Sea Fleet. Naval Institute Press, 2012.
Shenk, R, ed. and Koktzoglou, S, ed. The Greek Genocide in American Naval War Diaries, University of New Orleans Press, 2020.
Shirinian, George N, ed. The Asia Minor Catastrophe and the Ottoman Greek Genocide. Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2012.
Shirinian, George N, ed. Genocide in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks, 1913-1923. Berghahn Books, 2017.
Shirinian, George N, ed. The Greek Genocide 1913-1923: New Perspectives. The Asia Minor and Pontos Hellenic Research Center, 2019.
Solomonidis, Victoria. Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. C. Hurst and Co. Publishers, 2010.
Soteriou, Dido. Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens: Kedros, 1991.
Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople: Sketches of German and Young Turkish Ethics and Politics. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1917.
Suny, Ronald G, ed. and Gocek, Fatma M, ed. and Naimark, Norman M, ed. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, USA. 2011.
The Pontus Delegation, The Pontus Question: memorandum submitted to the Peace Conference on March 10, 1920. The Hesperia Press, London, 1920.
Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan. Carolina Academic Press, 1st edition, 2010.
Tsirkinidis, Harry. At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.
Tsoukalas C. The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.
Tusan, Michelle. Smyrna's Ashes: Humanitarianism, Genocide and the Birth of the Middle East. University of California Press, 2012.
Ureneck, Lou. The Great Fire: One American's mission to rescue victims of the Twentieth century's first Genocide. Ecco, 2015.
Venezis, Elias. To Noumero 31328: To Biblio tis Sklavias. N. Theofanidis & S. Lampadaridis, Mytilene 1931.
Ward, Mark H. The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.
Williams, John. Deutschland über Allah! Germany, Gallipoli and The Great War, Australian Scholarly Publishing 2016.
Williams, John. The Ethnic Cleansing of Greeks from Gallipoli, April 1915. Quadrant online, 2 April 2013.
Wuarin, Albert. The Martyrdom of the Pontus and International Public Opinion, Geneva 1922.
Yeghiayan, Vartkes. British reports on Ethnic Cleansing in Anatolia 1919-1922: The Armenian-Greek Section. Center for Armenian Remembrance (CAR), 2007.
Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris: Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918.
1922. Directed by Nikos Koundouros (1978).
This film 1922 is a portrayal of events during the final phase of the Greek Genocide, and in particular the events following the Smyrna Holocaust in September 1922.
America America. Directed by Elias Kazan (1963).
The movie begins in the 1890's around the time of the Hamidian Massacres when Armenians and other non-Muslim groups were being persecuted in Turkey. The movie provides an insight into the treatment of non-Turkic minorities in Ottoman Turkey just prior to the genocide.
GREECE IN ASIA MINOR, 1919-1922
C. Hurst and Co. Publishers, 2010.
‘Chronicles and analyses the events leading to the Asia Minor disaster in considerable depth, giving a highly detailed account, which is unique to this volume, of the Greek administration in Smyrna, providing rich and illuminating detail.’ — Dr Steven Morewood, University of Birminghamin
In 1919, at the behest of the victorious first World War allies, Greece sent an expeditionary force to occupy Smyrna and the Vilayet of Aidin pending final Allied agreement to the terms of the peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire. The immediate mission was to protect the very large Greek and other Christian communities from the depredations of the Turkish nationalists. The underlying Greek motivation was the pursuit of the age‑old ‘Great idea’ which aspired to incorporate the un-redeemed Hellenes within the Greek Kingdom.
After a bungled military landing in May 1919 and in the face of innumerable challenges, a civil administration under High Commissioner Aristidis Stergiadis made heroic efforts to govern effectively and even‑handedly over the disparate populations. The odds, however, were overwhelmingly against an enduring success. In September 1922 the catastrophic rout of the Greek army at the hands of the Turkish nationalists resulted in a civilian bloodbath, the destruction of Smyrna and the expulsion of Hellenism from Asia Minor.
This history is considered here against the background of fluid post‑war Allied relations, major foreign financial interests, the plight of the Christian minorities in Turkey, the inexorable rise of Turkish nationalism, the fraught political situation at home and developments both on the military front and in diplomatic negotiations. Greece in Asia Minor reassesses the work and reputation of the much‑maligned Aristidis Stergiadis, the reluctant but dedicated public servant, and challenges the view that he was the principal author of the ‘Smyrna catastrophe’.
Of Smyrniot descent, Victoria Solomonidis studied at Athens University and the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (UCL) before completing her doctoral thesis at King’s College, University of London, where she is a fellow. Beyond her academic interests she has extensive experience in international cultural relations. (Oct. 2010)
THE EASTERN QUESTION: THE LAST PHASE
A Study in Greek-Turkish Diplomacy.
By Harry J. Psomiades
Pella Pub. New York 2000.
Available at Amazon (affiliate link)
"The Eastern Question: The Last Phase examines the tremendous human dislocation that accompanied the final collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of modern Turkey, culminating in the Treaty of Lausanne. It offers a clear, comprehensive and authoritative analysis of complex issues that defined Greek-Turkish relations all through the twentieth century and remain sensitive to this day. A work of pioneering scholarship when it first appeared more than thirty years ago, it has lost none of its originality and value for those who wish to understand the current search for accomodation between Greece and Turkey."
- John O. Iatrides, Professor of International Politics, South Connecticut State University. (from the back cover).
Hellenism and Ottoman Turkish Imperialism
The Great Revival
The End of the Ottoman Empire
The Struggle for Thrace
The Contest for the Islands
The Exchange of Minorities
The Status of Minorities Excluded from the Exchange
The Status of the Ecumenical Patriarchae
The Lausanne Statement in Retrospect
THE GREEK GENOCIDE IN AMERICAN NAVAL WAR DIARIES
NAVAL COMMANDERS REPORT AND PROTEST DEATH MARCHES AND MASSACRES IN TURKEY'S PONTUS REGION 1921-1922
Edited by Robert Shenk and Savvas Koktzoglou
University of New Orleans Press, 2020.
Available at Amazon
This book contains a collection of American naval war diaries recently found in the U.S National Archives about what was happening on the northern coast of Turkey in 1921-1922. At the time, a series of American destroyers were continuously stationed at the port of Samsun, and the destroyer captains describe here many of the atrocities then being perpetrated upon the Asia Minor Greek minority by the ruling Nationalist Turks, along with local Greek reactions.
- Foreword by James Stavridis, Admiral, USN, Retired
- General Introduction
- Timeline of Events
- Samsun war diaries from May to November 1921
- Summary of Samsun war diairies from November 1921 to June 1922
- Trebizond war diaries from June 1921 to June 1922
- Epilogue: The Nationalist victory, Smyrna, and after
The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some news reports.