Some of the key dates of the Greek Genocide.
|Oct 1911||The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) Party announces the Ottomanization and Muslim domination of the Ottoman Empire at their Congress in Ottoman controlled Thessaloniki (or Salonica).1|
|1912-||During the Balkan wars, the retreating Ottoman army commits large scale massacres in Eastern Thrace particularly in regions such as Edirne, Malkara and Kesan. Greeks are compelled to immigrate to Greece while many are systematically marched to the interior of Asia Minor away from their villages and purposely exposed to exhaustion and starvation.2,3|
|1914||The CUP deportation policy continues into Asia Minor. Muslim bands attack Greek settlements along the western Asia Minor littoral forcing Greek communities to immigrate to Greece. An estimated 150-200,000 Greeks leave their homes before the outbreak of WW1 either by force or by threats of force.4|
|Apr 1914||Turkish authorities pursue an economic boycott of Greek businesses driving many to ruin. Muslims warned not to buy from Greek businesses.5|
|Jun 1914||The Greek town of Foça Gr: Phocaea) is systematically plundered and looted by orgnised bands accompanied by local police. A large scale massacre of Greeks is committed. Identical policy in nearby Greek communities.6|
|Jul 1914||Greek males (18-48 years of age) are drafted into the notorious labour battallions (Tr: Amele taburlari) of the Ottoman Army. Most of them don't survive the compulsory labour, malnutrition and lack of accomodation. Many are slaughtered, others committ suicide to escape the harsh treatment, disease, starvation and cold weather.7|
|Mar 1915||Greek communities around the Sea of Marmora, Gallipoli and the Dardanelles are ordered to leave their homes and are deported to the interior of Asia Minor. Many forced to convert to Islam.8|
|Dec 1916||Greek communities living along the Black Sea coastline are rounded up and deported to the interior during the peak of winter.,9, 10|
|Oct 1917||The Chairman of the Relief Committeee for Greeks of Asia Minor, Frank W. Jackson declares 700,000 Greeks as victims of death, sufferring or deportation throughout Asia Minor and Thrace. Says 70,000 Greeks were deported toward Konya and beyond.11|
|Nov 1918||The end of WW1 brings to an end the persecution of Greeks but only temporarily. The victorious Allies (France, Great Britain, Italy and Greece) signal their intention to liberate indigenous populations persecuted by Turkish authorities during the war and begin to occupy parts of Turkey.12|
|Apr 1919||Ottoman Courts Martial condemn leaders of the CUP for their roles in organizaing massacres of Greeks and Armenians during the war. German military personnell also arrested.13, 14, 15|
|May 1919||A Turkish resistance movement is formed and eventually led by Ottoman General Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Banned officials from the CUP and the CUP's "Special Operations" paramilitary unit join the movement.|
|Spring 1920||Reports of massacres and deportations of unarmed Greeks throughout Asia Minor increase.16, 17, 18|
|1920||Courts of Independence (Tr: İstiklal Mahkemeleri) are established in areas under the control of the Kemalist Nationalist government, initially to prosecute political opponents of Mustafa Kemal. They subsequently issue arbitrary death sentences to hundreds of Greeks. Among them are many influential citizens such as publishers, entrepreneurs, mayors of towns and villages and previous members of the Ottoman parliament. The intellectual and political elite of the Greeks of Asia Minor is destroyed within a few months.19|
|Apr 1921||The National Assembly at Ankara orders the reintroduction of labour battallions for non-Muslims.20, 21|
|1921-1922||Throughout this period, Near East Relief workers witness convoys of thousands of Greeks being driven to the interior under armed Turkish guards.22, 23|
|May 1922||American relief workers are expelled from Turkey by the Kemalists for providing relief to Christians who were deported to the interior and for keeping notes. Near East Relief physician, Dr. Mark H. Ward who was expelled by the Kemalists for keeping a diary of the deportations travels to London and Washington after his expulsion and describes how "the Kemalists pursued with vigour their considered and systematic campaign for the extermination of the Greek minority in Asia Minor."24, 25|
|Sep 1922||Following the complete withdrawal of the Hellenic Army from the port city of Smyrna on September 8, 1922, Kemalist forces arrive the following day and assume full control of the undefended city. Kemalist forces then deliberately set fire to the Greek and Armenian quarters of the city and commit a large scale massacre of its predominantly Christian population.26, 27, 28|
|16 Sep 1922||Turkish authorities issue a proclamation ordering all Greek and Armenian men aged 18-45 years as prisoners of war. All other residents of Smyrna or surrounding regions are ordered to leave the country before September 30, 1922. Men and women are separated and the men shot in groups. Approximately 150,000 Greek men are deported to the interior of Turkey. The majority are massacred.29, 30|
|2 Nov 1922||The National Assembly at Ankara announces its decision to expel all remaining Christians from Asia Minor. The Near East Relief estimates that figure to be half a million.31|
1. 3 Oct 1911: Young Turks and their Programme, The Times, p.3.
2. 29 Jul 1913: Human Slaughter, Daily Standard, p.5.
3. 13 Sep 1913: Troops Commanded to Murder and Pillage, The Express and Telegraph, p.6.
4. Bjørnlund Matthias, The 1914 cleansing of Aegean Greeks as a case of violent Turkification. Journal of Genocide Research (2008), 10(1), March, 48.
5. 18 Apr 1914: Turkish Persecution of Greeks, The Times, p.7.
6. 18 Jun 1914: Massacres in Asia Minor, The Advertiser, p.16.
7. Emmanuel Emmanuelides. The Last Years of the Ottoman Empire, Athens 1924, pp.377-378.
8. American Embassy Constantinople. File 867.4016/123, pp.1-11.
9. 22 Aug 1916: The Unspeakable Turk, The Argus, p.7.
10. 20 Dec 1917: Turks Drive 400,000 into Desert, Salt Lake Telegram, p.11.
11. 17 Oct 1917: Turks Turned Against Greek. 700,000 Suffer. The Evening Independent, p.6.
12. 9 Nov 1918: Allies' Aims in Turkey, Geelong Advertiser, p.3.
13. 15 Mar 1919: First Hun Held for Atrocities, The Evening Independent, p.1.
14. 2 May 1919: Arrests of High Officials, Daily Observer, p.2.
15. 13 Jul 1919: Turkey Condemns its War Leaders, New York Times, p.1.
16. 31 Jul 1920: Turkish Atrocities, Maitland Daily Mercury, p.5.
17. 10 Jun 1921: Reported Massacre of Greeks, Albury Banner, p.19.
18. 14 Jun 1922: Turks Massacre 15,000 More Greeks, New York Times, p.14.
19. Hofmann, Tessa, ed. and Bjornlund, Matthias, ed. and Meichenetsidis, Vasileios, ed. The Genocide of the Ottoman Greeks. Aristide Caratzas, 2012. pp.74-75.
20. 24 Nov 1921: Horrors of Asia Minor, Singleton Argus, p.2.
21. 26 Oct 1922: Killing off Christian Recruits by Toxic Injection, Western Mail, p.8.
22. Ethel R. Thompson (Near East Relief Worker), Greek Genocide Resource Center.
23. Stanley E. Hopkins (Near East Relief), Greek Genocide Resource Center.
24. 21 Jun 1922: Nations of World Urged to Declare Turkey an Outlaw, Christian Science Monitor quoted in Oeconomos Lysimachos. The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom. George Allen and Unwin, 1922, pp36-40.
25. 16 May 1922: Turkish Atrocities Stir Britain to Act, New York Times, p.3.
26. 15 Sep 1922: Turks Kill Women and Babes, The Evening Star, p.1.
27. 15 Sep 1922: Smyrna Burning, 1,000 Massacred, New York Times, p.1.
28. 16 Sep 1922: Turks Killed 120,000, East Oregonian, p.1.
29. 22 Dec 1922: Prisoners of War, Northern Star, p.5.
30. 27 Sep 1922: Ultimatum to Refugees, Daily Telegraph, p.9.
31. 3 Nov 1922: Expulsion of Christians, The Times, p.13.