Notes on the Genocide of Christians of the Ottoman Empire

Submitted in support of a resolution recognizing the Armenian, Assyrian, and Pontic and Anatolian Greek genocides of 1914-23, presented to the membership of the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS), 2007.

Ottoman Genocide against Christian Minorities: General Comments and Sources

"It is believed that in Turkey between 1913 and 1922, under the successive regimes of the Young Turks and of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk), more than 3.5 million Armenian, Assyrian and Greek Christians were massacred in a state-organized and state-sponsored campaign of destruction and genocide, aiming at wiping out from the emerging Turkish Republic its native Christian populations. This Christian Holocaust is viewed as the precursor to the Jewish Holocaust in WWII. To this day, the Turkish government ostensibly denies having committed this genocide."

— Prof. Israel Charney, President of the IAGS


"Turks admit that the Armenian persecution is the first step in a plan to get rid of Christians, and that Greeks would come next. ... Turkey henceforth is to be for Turks alone."

— Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris, quoting the New York Times, September 14, 1915.


"While the death toll in the trenches of Western Europe were close to 2 million by the summer of 1915, the extermination of innocent civilians in Turkey (the Armenians, but also Syrian and Assyrian Christians and large portions of the Greek population, especially the Greeks of Pontos, or Black Sea region) was reaching 1 million."

— Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris, p. 285-286.

In an article for the August 1, 1926 edition of the Los Angeles Examiner, Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) also affirms the slaughters. Kemal writes:

"those ... left-over from the former Young Turkish Party, ... should have been made to account for the lives of millions of our Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse, from their homes and massacred ..."

— Mustafa Kemal — Emile Hildebrand, "Kemal Promises More Hangings of Political Antagonists in Turkey," Los Angeles Examiner, August 1, 1926 (Sunday edition, Section VI).


"If members of the United Nations pass appropriate legislation such incidents such as pogroms of Czarist Russian and the massacres of Armenians and Greeks by Turkey would be punishable as genocide."

— "Genocide Under the Law of Nations," New York Times, January 5, 1947.


Contemporary newspaper commentary


"The extermination of the Armenians is well under way. Thousands of Nestorians and Syrians [of the Assyrian Orthodox Church] have vanished from the face of the earth. More than 300,000 Greeks have been deported from the Ottoman Empire, and many more sent to the interior. The fate that awaits the surviving Christians and Jews — in fact, of all the non-Turkish elements — depends on the term of the fratricidal war and its fortunes. The Young Turks are watchfully waiting to carry out their program: 'Turkey for the Turks.'"

Atlantic Monthly, November 1916

The Greek Genocide

Note: Anatolia (from the Greek meaning east) and Asia Minor are both terms used to designate the area now known as Turkey. Pontos, or Pontus, a large mountainous province along the southern shores of the Black Sea, and the Pontians, or Pontic Greeks, who first settled there in 800 B.C., are often specifically mentioned in documentation. The Pontian region is part of Anatolia. Other areas of Anatolia long settled by Greeks are Ionia (the western coastal province of Smyrna and environs) and Cappadocia (a large central province). Lesser known, but equally important, Greek settlements in Anatolia include Bithynia, Caria, Cilicia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Lycia, Lydia, Mysia, Pamphylia, Paphlagonia, Phrygia, and Pisidia.

Henry Morgenthau, Sr.

"The martyrdom of the Greeks, therefore, comprised two periods: that antedating the war, and that which began in the early part of 1915. The first affected chiefly the Greeks on the seacoast of Asia Minor. The second affected those living in Thrace and in the territories surrounding the Sea of Marmora, the Dardanelles, the Bosphorus, and the coast of the Black Sea. These latter, to the extent of several hundred thousand, were sent to the interior of Asia Minor. The Turks adopted almost identically the same procedure against the Greeks as that which they had adopted against the Armenians. They began by incorporating the Greeks into the Ottoman army and then transforming them into labour battalions, using them to build roads in the Caucasus and other scenes of action. These Greek soldiers, just like the Armenians, died by thousands from cold, hunger, and other privations. The same house-to-house searches for hidden weapons took place in the Greek villages, and Greek men and women were beaten and tortured just as were their fellow Armenians. The Greeks had to submit to the same forced requisitions, which amounted in their case, as in the case of the Armenians, merely to plundering on a wholesale scale. The Turks attempted to force the Greek subjects to become Mohammedans; Greek girls, just like Armenian girls, were stolen and taken to Turkish harems and Greek boys were kidnapped and placed in Moslem households. The Greeks, just like the Armenians, were accused of disloyalty to the Ottoman Government; the Turks accused them of furnishing supplies to the English submarines in the Marmora and also of acting as spies. The Turks also declared that the Greeks were not loyal to the Ottoman Government, and that they also looked forward to the day when the Greeks inside of Turkey would become part of Greece. These latter charges were unquestionably true; that the Greeks, after suffering for five centuries the most unspeakable outrages at the hands of the Turks, should look longingly to the day when their territory should be part of the fatherland, was to be expected. The Turks, as in the case of the Armenians, seized upon this as an excuse for a violent onslaught on the whole race. Everywhere the Greeks were gathered in groups and, under the so-called protection of Turkish gendarmes, they were transported, the larger part on foot, into the interior. Just how many were scattered in this fashion is not definitely known, the estimates varying anywhere from 200,000 up to 1,000,000. These caravans suffered great privations, but they were not submitted to general massacre as were the Armenians, and this is probably the reason why the outside world has not heard so much about them. The Turks showed them this greater consideration not from any motive of pity. The Greeks, unlike the Armenians, had a government which was vitally interested in their welfare. At this time there was a general apprehension among the Teutonic Allies that Greece would enter the war on the side of the Entente, and a wholesale massacre of Greeks in Asia Minor would unquestionably have produced such a state of mind in Greece that its pro-German king would have been unable longer to keep his country out of the war. It was only a matter of state policy, therefore, that saved these Greek subjects of Turkey from all the horrors that befell the Armenians. But their sufferings are still terrible, and constitute another chapter in the long story of crimes for which civilization will hold the Turk responsible.

Amb. Henry Morgenthau, Sr. "The Murder of a Nation," ch. XXIV in Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, 1919 (written in 1916, before Greece entered the war on the side of the Allies in 1917, therefore before the further massacres of Greeks between 1916 and 1923), pp. 52-53.

When "the civilized world did not protest against these deportations the Turks afterward decided to apply the same methods on a larger scale not only to the Greeks but to the Armenians, Syrians, Nestorians, and others of its subject peoples."

"the Greeks were the first victims of this nationalizing idea ... in the few months preceding the European War, the Ottoman Government began deporting its Greek subjects along the coast of Asia Minor."

"The story which I have told about the Armenians I could also tell with certain modifications about the Greeks and the Syrians."

— Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story


"By ridding themselves of the Armenians, Greeks, or any other group that stood in their way, Turkish nationalists were attempting to prove how they could clarify, purify, and ultimately unify a polity and society so that it could succeed on its own, albeit Western-orientated terms. This, of course, was the ultimate paradox: the CUP committed genocide in order to transform the residual empire into a streamlined, homogeneous nation-state on the European model. Once the CUP had started the process, the Kemalists, freed from any direct European pressure by the 1918 defeat and capitulation of Germany, went on to complete it, achieving what nobody believed possible: the reassertion of independence and sovereignty via an exterminatory war of national liberation."

— Mark Levene, "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation— and State-formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878-1923."


"The Turks extended their policy of exterminating the Christians of the empire to the Armenians, Greeks, Syrians, and Lebanese."

"German military officers, diplomats, and civilians also witnessed the planning and execution of the genocide of Armenian, Assyrian, and Greek Christians as it unfolded."

"Absent a governmental intention to exterminate the Christians of the empire, it would be nearly impossible to explain how the massacres, rapes, deportations, and dispossessions of the Armenian, Assyrian, and Greek Christians living in the Ottoman Empire at the time of World War I could have taken place on such a vast scale."

— Hannibal Travis, "Native Christians Massacred," Genocide Studies and Prevention, December 2006 (see further quotes from this source in the section on the Assyrian genocide).


Contemporary commentary and official pronouncements

14 May 1914: Official document from Talaat Bey Minister of the Interior to Prefect of Smyrna: "The Greeks, who are Ottoman subjects, and form the majority of inhabitants in your district, take advantage of the circumstances in order to provoke a revolutionary current, favourable to the intervention of the Great Powers. Consequently, it is urgently necessary that the Greeks occupying the coastline of Asia Minor be compelled to evacuate their villages and install themselves in the vilayets of Erzerum and Chaldea. If they should refuse to be transported to the appointed places, kindly give instructions to our Moslem brothers, so that they shall induce the Greeks, through excesses of all sorts, to leave their native places of their own accord. Do not forget to obtain, in such cases, from the emigrants certificates stating that they leave their homes on their own initiative, so that we shall not have political complications ensuing from their displacement."

31 July 1915: German priest J. Lepsius: "The anti-Greek and anti-Armenian persecutions are two phases of one — the extermination of the Christian element from Turkey."

16 July 1916: German Consul Kuchhoff from Amisos to Berlin: "The entire Greek population of Sinope and the coastal region of the county of Kastanomu has been exiled. Exile and extermination in Turkish are the same, for whoever is not murdered, will die from hunger or illness."

30 November 1916: Austrian consul at Amisos Kwiatkowski to Austrian Foreign Minister Baron Burian: "on 26 November Rafet Bey told me: 'we must finish off the Greeks as we did with the Armenians ...' on 28 November Rafet Bey told me: 'today I sent squads to the interior to kill every Greek on sight.' I fear for the elimination of the entire Greek population and a repeat of what occurred last year."

13 December 1916: German Ambassador Kuhlman to German Chancellor Hollweg in Berlin: "Consuls Bergfeld in Samsun and Schede in Kerasun report of displacement of local population and murders. Prisoners are not kept. Villages reduced to ashes. Greek refugee families consisting mostly of women and children being marched from the coasts to Sebasteia. The need is great."

20 January 1917: Austrian Ambassador Pallavicini: "the situation for the displaced is desperate. Death awaits them all. I spoke to the Grand Vizier and told him that it would be sad if the persecution of the Greek element took the same scope and dimension as the Armenia persecution."

31 January 1917: German Chancellor Hollweg's report: "... the indications are that the Turks plan to eliminate the Greek element as enemies of the state, as they did earlier with the Armenians. The strategy implemented by the Turks is of displacing people to the interior without taking measures for their survival by exposing them to death, hunger, and illness. The abandoned homes are then looted and burnt or destroyed. Whatever was done to the Armenians is being repeated with the Greeks."

— Sources: Found in the archives of the Foreign Ministry of Greece, as reported by Professor Kostas Fotiadis, professor of History at Aristotelian University in Greece and compiled in a 14 volumes of documentation: Constantinos Emm. Fotiadis, The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. Vol. 13 is: The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks by the Turks: Archive documents of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Britain, France, the League of Nations and S.H.A.T., Heodotus, Greece (2004). See also


Hundreds Killed by Turks and Bulgars in Many Towns, London Hears

— New York Times, 20 April 1916


"Stories of cruelty and outrage in the expulsion of the inhabitants from the villages — features which it was impossible indeed should be lacking — are simply confirmed. A good many girls are in the hospitals at Aivali in consequence of their treatment by the moharjis."

— Manchester Guardian, 29 June 1914


Priest, Old Men and Children
Are Reported Slain—Bodies
Are Thrown into Well.

— Atlanta Constitution, June 17, 1914


Hundreds Killed by Turks and Bulgars in Many Towns London Hears

— The New York Times, April 20, 1916


"The story of the Greek deportations is not yet generally known. Quietly and gradually the same treatment is being meted out to the Greeks as to the Armenians and Syrians [Assyrians]. Although closely guarded, certain echoes come out from time to time. There were some two or three million Greeks in Asia Minor at the outbreak of the war in 1914 subject to Turkish rule. According to the latest reliable and authoritative accounts, some seven to eight hundred thousand have been deported, mainly from the coast regions into the interior of Asia Minor. At the declaration of the present war all persecutions were stopped, but the spring of 1915 brought to the stage a tragic, novel drama, unique in the history of the world as to its horrors and destructiveness — that is, the Armenian deportation; under that innocent name the extermination of a Christian race was started. Along with the Armenians most of the Greeks of the Marmora regions and Thrace have been deported on the pretext that they gave information to the enemy. Along the Aegean coast, Aivalik stands out as the worst sufferer. According to one report, some 70,000 Greeks have been deported towards Konia and beyond. At least 7000 have been slaughtered. The Greek Bishop of Aivalik committed suicide in despair."

— Frank W. Jackson, Chairman of the Relief Committee for Greeks of Asia Minor, October 17, 1917


"Will the outrageous terrorising, the cruel torturing, the driving of women into the harems, the debauchery of innocent girls, the sale of many of them at eighty cents each, the murdering of hundreds of thousands and the deportation to, and starvation in, the deserts of other hundreds of thousands, the destruction of hundreds of villages and cities, will the wilful execution of this whole devilish scheme to annihilate the Armenian, Greek and Syrian Christians of Turkey — will all this go unpunished?"

— Henry Morgenthau, "The Greatest Horror in History," Red Cross Magazine, March 1918.


"Les persécutions antihelléniques poursuivies en Turquie depuis le début de la guerre européenne ne sont que la continuation du plan d'extermination de l'Hellénisme mis, depuis 1913, en pratique par les Jeunes-Turcs."
"The anti-Greek persecutions carried out in Turkey since the beginning of the European War are but the continuation of the plan of extermination of Hellenism practiced by the Young Turks, since 1913."

— From the reports of diplomatic and consular officials.

— Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires (Paris, Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918), Introduction.


"... the Greeks of Anatolia are suffering the same or worse fate than did the Armenians in the massacres of the Great War. The deportation of the Greeks is not limited to the Black Sea Coast but is being carried out throughout the whole of the country governed by the Nationalists. Greek villages are deported entire, the few Turkish or Armenian inhabitants are forced to leave, and the villages are burned. The purpose is unquestionably to destroy all Greeks in that territory and to leave Turkey for the Turks. These deportations are, of course, accompanied by cruelties of every form just as was true in the case of the Armenian deportations five and six years ago."

— Stanley Hopkins, American employee of the Near East Relief, 16/11/1921


Additional Sources

"In 1916, the Pontic Greeks along the Black Sea coast were again targeted. Six thousand Pontian men, women, and children of the Bafra area were burned alive as they took refuge in churches. In the town of Alajam another 2,500 Pontians were slaughtered. Of the 25,000 inhabitants of the Bafra region alone, 90 percent were eliminated by mass slayings or by sending them on long death marches where they were often raped and robbed and left to die of disease and starvation."

— Dr. Harry Psomiades, The Phantom Republic of Pontos and the Magali Catastrophe (The Hellenic Studies Forum Inc. of Australia, 1992)


A study of this question may be found in Publication No. 3, of the American Hellenic Society, 1918, in which the statement is made that one million, five hundred thousand Greeks were driven from their homes in Thrace and Asia Minor, and that half these populations had perished from deportations, outrages and famine.

"The violent and inflammatory articles in the Turkish newspapers, above referred to, appeared unexpectedly and without any cause. They were so evidently 'inspired' by the authorities, that it seems a wonder that even ignorant Turks did not understand this. Cheap lithographs were also got up, executed in the clumsiest and most primitive manner-evidently local productions. They represented Greeks cutting up Turkish babies or ripping open pregnant Moslem women, and various purely imaginary scenes, founded on no actual events or even accusations elsewhere made. These were hung in the mosques and schools. This campaign bore immediate fruit and set the Turk to killing, a not very difficult thing to do."

— George Horton, The Blight of Asia (1956)


April 5, 1922: The American Consul at Aleppo, Jesse B. Jackson, filed a report from Dr. Mark H. Ward and Dr. F. D. Yowell, Director of the Near East Relief unit at Harpoot. In it Ward and Yowell testify to the tens of thousands of Greeks from the Black Sea region — two-thirds of whom were women and children — being marched south, with medical attention, food and shelter denied to them, causing many thousands to perish from 'starvation, exposure, typhus, and dysentery.'

Yowell and Ward affirmed: "The policy of the Turks toward the Greeks who were, and are still, being deported, through Sivas-Harpoot Diarbekr from the Black Sea Coast and the Konia district, seems to be one of extermination."

Yowell, May 5, 1922: "Conditions of Greek minorities are even worse than those of the Armenians. Sufferings of the Greeks deported from districts behind the battlefront are terrible and still continue. These deportees begun to reach Harpoot before my arrival last October. Of thirty thousand Greek refugees who left Sivas, five thousand died on the way before reaching Harpoot. One American relief worker saw and counted fifteen hundred bodies on the road east of Harpoot.

"In Harpoot district our relief has been to give these needy people in opposition to the wishes of the Turks who did everything in their power to prevent our doing so. We were not allowed to employ any Greeks in our work or to take any orphan children, left by dying Greek deportees, into our orphanages. Sick Greeks could not be received into our hospital except on the written order of the Turkish Commissioner.

"Two thirds of the Greek deportees are women and children. All along the route where these deportees have travelled Turks are permitted to visit refugee group and select women and girls whom they desire for any purpose. These deportations are still in progress, and if American aid is now withdrawn all will perish. Their whole route today strewn with bodies of their dead, which are consumed by dogs, wolves, vultures. The Turks make no effort to bury these dead and the deportees are not permitted to do so. The chief causes of death are starvation, dysentery, typhus. Turkish authorities frankly state that is their deliberate intention to exterminate the Greeks, and all their actions supports this statements. At present fresh deportations and outrages are starting in all parts of Asia Minor from northern seaports to the south eastern district.”

Dr. Mark H. Ward, Medical missionary for the Near East Relief, July 6, 1922: "From May, 1921, to March last, when I left, thirty thousand deportees, of whom six thousand were Armenians and the rest Greeks, were collected at Sivas and deported through Kharput to Bitlis and Van. Of these thirty thousand, ten thousand perished last winter and ten thousand escaped or have been protected by the Americans. The fate of the other ten thousand is not known. The deportations are continuing; every week's delay means deaths to hundreds of these poor people. The Turkish policy is extermination of these Christian minorities."

Documentary Evidence that Turkish Officials Ordered the Atrocities. Translated, it reads in part:

"To the Commandant of the Central Brigade: I call your attention to the following: There is nothing but death for the Greeks, who are without honor. As soon as the slightest sign is given you, destroy everything about you immediately. As for the women, stop at nothing. Do not take either honor or friendship into consideration when the moment of vengeance arrives!
— The Commandant of the Brigade, Mehmet Azit"

— Cited in Edward Hale Bierstadt, The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem, New York, 1924.


"The Committee of Union and Progress made a clear decision. The source of the problem in Western Anatolia would be removed, the Greeks would be cleared out by means of political and economical measures. Before anything else, it would be necessary to weaken and break the economically powerful Greeks."

— Nurdogan Taçlan, Ege'de Kurtulus Savasi Baslarken (Istanbul, 1970), p. 65. Quoted in Taner Akçam, A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility, translated by Paul Bessemer (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006), p. 103.


"The Turkish reprisals against the west Anatolian Greeks became general in the spring of 1914. Entire Greek communities were driven from their homes by terrorism, their homes and land and often their moveable property were seized, and individuals were killed in the process."

— Arnold Toynbee, The Western Question in Greece and Turkey (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1922), p. 140.

For further documentation, click here


Armenian/Pontian Joint Recognition

Armenian National Committee of America



— Joins with Assyrian and Greek Communities in Seeking Justice for Turkey's Genocidal Crimes

May 19, 2007

WASHINGTON, DC — The Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) joins with Pontian Greeks — and all Hellenes around the world — in commemorating May 19th, the international day of remembrance for the genocide initiated by the Ottoman Empire and continued by Kemalist Turkey against the historic Greek population of Pontus along the southeastern coast of the Black Sea.

"We join with the Hellenic American community in solemn remembrance of the Pontian Genocide, and in reaffirming our determination to work together with all the victims of Turkey's atrocities to secure full recognition and justice for these crimes," said Aram Hamparian, Executive Director of the ANCA.

The Ottoman Empire, under the cover of World War I, undertook a systematic and deliberate effort to eliminate its minority Christian populations. This genocidal campaign resulted in the death and deportation of well over 2,000,000 Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks.

The Pontian Genocide has been formally acknowledged by Greece and Cyprus and, within the United States, by the states of New York, New Jersey, Florida, South Carolina, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Illinois, among others.

Note: While ANCA's affirmation of the Genocide of Greeks and Assyrians is greatly appreciated, many authorities consider the number of victims to be much greater than that recognized. For example, in his book Statistics of Democide, R.J. Rummel writes: "Democide had preceded the Young Turks' rule and with their collapse at the end of World War I, the successor Nationalist government carried out its own democide against the Greeks and remaining or returning Armenians. From 1900 to 1923, various Turkish regimes killed from 3,500,000 to over 4,300,000 Armenians, Greeks, Nestorians, and other Christians."


Bibliography of Books on the Pontic and Anatolian Greek Genocides

Note: For a more thorough list, including a large number of Greek-language sources, click here 

Also, a number of books and reports can be downloaded here

James Levi Barton, The Near East Relief, 1915-1930. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1943.

Edward Hale Bierstadt, The Great Betrayal: A Survey of the Near East Problem. New York: R. M. McBride & company, 1924.

Carl C. Compton, The Morning Cometh. New York: Karatzas Publisher, 1986.

Marjorie Housepian Dobkin, Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City. New York, NY: Newmark Press, 1998.

Constantinos Fotiadis (ed.), The Genocide of the Pontus Greeks. 14 vols. Herodotus, 2004.

Les Persécution Antihelléniques en Turquie Depuis le Début de la Guerre Européenne. D'après les rapports officiels des agents diplomatiques et consulaires. Paris: Librairie Bernard Grasset, 1918.

Thea Halo, Not Even My Name. New York: Picador USA, 2000.

Hofmann, Tessa, ed., Verfolgung, Vertreibung und Vernichtung der Christen im Osmanischen Reich 1912-1922. Münster: LIT, 2004. (pp. 177-221 on Pontian Greeks)

George Horton, The Blight of Asia: An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; With a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. Indianopolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926.

Ioannis Karayinnides, The Golgotha of Pontos. Salonica, 1978.

Johannes Lepsius, Archives du genocide des Armeniens. Paris: Fayard, 1986.

Bernard Lewis, The Making of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1961.

Manchester League of Unredeemed Hellenes, Turkey's Crimes: Hellenism in Turkey. Manchester : Norbury, Natzio & Co., 1919.

J.A.R. Marriott, The Eastern Question: A Study in European Diplomacy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

Manus I. Midlarsky, The Killing Trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Henry Morgenthau, Sr., Ambassador's Morgenthau Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Page & Company, 1918. Also published by the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America, 1974.

Henry Morgenthau, Sr., I Was Sent to Athens. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1929.

Henry Morgenthau, Sr., An International Drama. London: Jarrolds Ltd., 1930.

Jean De Murat. The Great Extirpation of Hellenism and Christianity in Asia Minor: The Historic and Systematic Deception of World Opinion Concerning the Hideous Christianity's Uprooting of 1922. Miami, Fla.: [s.n.], (Athens [Greece]: A. Triantafillis) 1999.

Lysimachos Oeconomos, The Martyrdom of Smyrna and Eastern Christendom: A File of Overwhelming Evidence, Denouncing the Misdeeds of the Turks in Asia Minor and Showing Their Responsibility for the Horrors of Smyrna. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1922.

Alexander Papadopoulos, Persecutions of the Greeks in Turkey before the European War: On the Basis of Official Documents. New York: Oxford University Press, 1919.

Ioannis Pavlides, Pages of History of Pontus and Asia Minor. Salonica, Greece, 1980.

G.W. Rendel, "Memorandum by Mr. Rendel on Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice." British Foreign Office Report, 1922. FO 371/7876. X/PO9194.

R. J. Rummel, Statistics of Democide, Chapter 5, "Statistics of Turkey's Democide — Estimates, Calculations and Sources."

S.J. and E.K. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Michael Llewellyn Smith, Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor, 1919-1922. London: Allen Lane, 1973.

Dido Soteriou, Farewell Anatolia. Translated by Fred A. Reed. Athens: Kedros, 1991.

Harry Tsirkinidis, At Last We Uprooted Them: The Genocide of Greeks of Pontos, Thrace, and Asia Minor, through the French Archives. Thessaloniki: Kyriakidis Bros, 1999.

C. Tsoukalas, The Greek Tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.

Mark H. Ward, The Deportations in Asia Minor, 1921-1922. London: Anglo-Hellenic League, 1922.

Wikipedia Sources

All these entries feature numerous scholarly citations and references from contemporary news accounts.

The Armenian Genocide
The Assyrian Genocide
The Greek Genocide


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