TURKS PROCLAIM BANISHMENT EDICT TO 1,000,000 GREEKS
Ismet, in Lausanne Conference, Gives those remaining in Turkey Two Weeks Grace.
ALLIES ACCEPT THE DICTUM
Proceed to Discussion of Means of Evacuation - Greeks in Constantinople included.
CONFERENCE RECESS SOON
Leaders, despairing of Agreement now, Plan for adjournment About Dec. 15
The New York Times
Dec 2, 1922.
From the New York Times
By EDWIN I. JAMES.
Copyright, 1922 by The New York Times Company.
Special Cable to THE NEW YORK TIMES
LAUSANNE, Dec. 1.--A black page of
modern history was written here today.
Ismet Pasha stood before the statesmen
of the civilized world and admitted that
the banishment from Turkish territory
of nearly a million Christian Greeks,
who were two million only a few short
years ago had been decreed. The Turk-
ish Government graciously allows two
more weeks for the great exodus.
The statesmen of the civilized powers
accepted the Turkish dictum and set
about ways to get those thousands of
Greeks out of harm's way before they
should meet the fate of 800,000 Arme-
nians who were massacred in Anatolia
in 1910 and 1917.
New Light on Turkish Massacres.
Here, in the beauty of the Winter sun-
shine of the Swiss Alps, diplomats have
been for ten days talking political prob-
lems with the Turks, treating them as
equals. Massacre and bloodshed seemed
far away. But today a change took
place, and a new light was thrown on
the situation. The facts are not new:
the world knows the Turks' cruelty and
massacres. But the way their crimes
were presented this afternoon came like
a clever stage effect.
As an audience may change from
smiles to tears, the diplomats here seem
to have had their souls touched today
as Lord Curzon unfolded the sinister
story of the fate of the Greeks in Asia
Minor; and today's events cannot but
fail to have an important effect on
the final settlement. In all probability
no treaty will be written at this session,
and in two weeks the conference will be
adjourned, it is believed, to meet again
in a month or six weeks. In the mean-
while the Turks will have time to think
things over and become more reason-
able or face the consequences.
Today's meeting was scheduled under
the simple heading: "Exchange of
Prisoners." The delegates rolled in
luxurious automobiles to the old
chateau. They left it two hours later
with solemn faces. Within the ancient
walls the shades of murdered thou-
sands had poured to have their say.
Dr. Nansen Reads His Report.
Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, who had been
sent to Anatolia by the League of Na-
tions, read his report on conditions there
and made the radical recommendation
that all Greeks under Turkish sover-
eignty be got away quickly to save them
from starvation or death by other agen-
cies. It was immediately apparent that
something more than the mere discus-
sion of the fate of some few thousands
of prisoners of war had been staged.
Ismet Pasha arose and said that the
Turks were willing to begin the discus-
sion of means for gettingall Greeks
out of Turkey and suggested that the
conference proceed at once to take up
the subject of minorities.
Lord Curzon declared that he felt that
many thousands of lives were at stake
and said that quick action must be
taken. He said that the Turks had de-
creed that all Greeks in Anatolia must
get out by the last day of November
and added that they had extended the
date to December 13. Immediate steps, Lord
Curzon said must be taken to remove
the Greeks by that date.
Ismet Admits Decree of Banishment.
Instead of retreating before Lord Cur-
zon's attack, Ismet agreed that the
Greeks must leave Anatolia and volun-
teered the statement the Greeks in
Constantinople had better depart also.
Lord Curzon protested that this would
mean great economic loss for Turkey.
Ex-Premiere Venizelos declared that if
those hundreds of thousands were sent
to Greece the country could not care for
them and would have to ask the United
States for aid. When Lord Curzon
warned Ismet of danger to the Turks in
Western Thrace, which remains Greek,
Ismet coolly replied that it might be a
good idea to trade the Greeks in Tur-
key for the Turks in Greece.
Lord Curzon then said that he wished
to give some statistics in order that
there might be a clear idea what was at
stake. He said that figures from Amer-
ican sources showed that before 1914
there were 1,600,000 Greeks in Anatolia.
Between 1914 and 1918 300,000 died, left
the country or otherwise disappeared.
Between 1919 and 1922 another 200,000
left Anatolia or disappeared. In Sep-
tember and October of this year another
reduction of 500,000 took place leaving
now 500,000 or 600,000 Greeks in Ana-
tolia, most of whom were males between
15 and 60, to whom the Turks had re-
fused permission to leave.
A Million Greeks Wiped Out.
"In other words" said the British
Foreign Minister "a million Greeks
have been killed, deported or have died."
Lord Curzon said that there had been
300,000 Greeks in Constantipole, most
of whom were stil there, 320,000 Greeks
in Eastern Thrace, some of whose famil-
ies had been there for a thousand
years and more, all had fled before the
dread of the Turks, leaving desert areas
Turning to the issue of the prisoners
of war, Lord Curzon said that the
Greeks held 10,000 Turkish soldiers and
about 3,800 Turkish civilians. The
Turks hold about 30,000 Greek soldiers.
He further pointed out that there were
in Greece proper, in the Greek islands
and Western Thrace 480,000 Moslems.
He further mentioned 120,000 Greeks
who have been deported by the Turks
into inner Anatolia. He recommended
that immediate steps be taken to solve
the tragic problem.
Ismet demanded that the Greeks free
at once the Turkish civilians whom they
held, whom he called hostages. He said
that some of Lord Curzon's figures were
too high, but he did not deny that the
Turks had decreed that all Greeks must
leave their territory. The outcome of
the discussion was the appointment of a
subcommittee to consider means for
getting the Greeks out of Turkish ter-
This story of the fate of 2,000,000
Greeks who were in Turkey takes no
account of the wiping out of an almost
equal number of Armenians of whom
the Turks wished to be rid. After the
massacres of war times only about
300,000 Armenians remain in Turkey.
There is almost an equal number in
Constantinople and Thrace. They must
go somewhere else or be killed, in all
The Turks have been invited by the
Allies to become members of the League
of Nations. They have replied that they
will join when their friends, the Reds of
Moscow, are admitted.
Recess From About December 15 Planned.
Facing a situation which seems almost
impossible, the leaders of the Lausanne
Conference have about decided to try to
arrange a temporary settlement of the
most pressing issues between the Turks
and the Greeks and take a recess from
about December 15 until the middle of Janu-
ary or the first of February. It is re-
ported that meanwhile Ismet Pasha will
go to Angora to explain the allied posi-
tion on the larger questions.
On the issues of the exchange of
prisoners, the protection of minorities,
the capitulations, the customs and the
Ottoman debt, the diplomats believe
that an agreement can be reached with
the Turks. But on the issues of the
European frontier of Turkey, the future
of the Straits and the Anatolian
boundary line, it appears unlikely that,
as long as Ismet Pasha sticks to his
instructions, any agreement can be
According to present plans, Ismet
will take to Angora the proposals of
the Allies relating to these questions
and endeavor to bring back new instruc-
This proposal originated with Ismet
Pasha and was tentatively approved by
Lord Curzon, who today communicated
the suggestion to the other delegations
including the Americans observers.
While on the face of it the recess
would be taken to allow Ismet to con-
fer with the Angora Government in per-
son, conversations with the Turkish
delegates reveal another idea, namely,
that the Brussels conference may pro-
duce a change in the complexion of the
allied negotiations with the Turks. The
Turks feel that the allied unity at
Lausanne which they did not expect, is
due to a bargain between England and
France by which England has promised
France aid in the solution of the lat-
ter's economic problems, including rep-
The Turks reason that after the Brus-
sels Conference the French will either
have the fruits of their bargain or will
be ready to act against Germany with-
out British help. In either eventuality
they calculate that France may be ready
to stand less firmly by the side of Eng-
land against themselves.
It seems scarcely believable that the
Poincare Government could have given
the Turks any encouragement in such
hopes, but nevertheless the Turks seem
confidential that they will lose nothing by
Turks Working With Russians.
On the issue of the Straits the Rus-
sians, whose chief delegate, George
Tchitcherin, arrived tonight, are ready
to fight to the end the British claims,
whatever they may be. The Turks so
far are working closely with the Rus-
sians and are denying the British de-
mands for the demilitarization of the
Straits. Coached by the Russians, they
now refuse to listen to the proposal to
have the League of Nations Guard the
Straits, although three weeks ago in
Paris, Ismet said that the solution
would be acceptable. While the British
demand the right to send their warships
through the Straits into the Black Sea,
the Russians demand that the Straits
be closed to all warships, as before the
With respect to the European frontier
the Turks demand a bridgehead on the
western side of the Maritsa River, on
the ground that it contains the railroad
station of Adrianople. The Allies re-
fuse to allow the Turks to cross the
Maritsa, on the ground that it gives
them an excellent bridgehead for offen-
sive operations in Europe.
The Anatolian frontier issue hinges on
the Mosul oil fields, which the British
intend to keep within the borders of the
Mesopotamian mandate, but which the
Turks claim for themselves.
On none of these three issues has the
slightest progress been made toward a
It is true the Turks maintain stoutly
that the British have made them pro-
posals by which the Turks would get
sovereignty over the district in return
for an assurance of oil concessions, the
British giving assurances that they
could dispose of the French, Italian and
American claims. Lord Curzon himself
authorized a denial that any such pro-
posal has been made.
The basic trouble here is that the
Turks present themselves as conquerors
having whipped the Greeks in 1922, while
the Allies present themselves as con-
querors, having whipped the Turks in
1918. Ismet Pasha, leading one side,
acts on the basis of the Mudania armi-
stice which marked the halt of the vic-
torious Turkish troops while Curzon,
leading the other side, acts on the basis
of the Mudros armistice, which marked
the halt of the victorious Allied troops.
Russian intervention on the one hand
and Balkan intervention on the other
serve to muddy the waters, with the
result of a confusion which is almost
M. Tchitcherin on his arrival went
into a three-hour conference with Ismet
Pasha, head of the Turkish delegation.
Tomorrow the Turks will entertain the
Russian delegation at luncheon.
In a statement to the press M.
"Two principles will guide the Rus-
sian delegation at the Lausanne confer-
"One is the principle of self-determina-
tion and the other is the need for peace
in the world. The first obviously ap-
plies to Turkey as well as to other na-
tions and, therefore, the Russians will
demand an independent Turkey. As for
the second principle, we consider one of
the essential conditions for peace in the
Near East is that the Straits shall be
effectively closed to all foreign war-
Bulgaria Threatens to Fight Greece.
Premier Stambouliwski of Bulgaria, in
an interview tonight, declared that he
had quitted the Balkan League and was
going to work with the Turks. Further-
more, he said if the conference did not
give Bulgaria the port of Dedeaghatch
and a corridor to the Aegean, the Bul-
gars would "go and get it."
"It is foolish to talk about the Balkan
bloc," he said. "There is no such thing.
If this conference does not give us De-
deaghatch as demanded, we will fight
the Greeks for it."
"The Bulgarian Government is in com-
plete accord with Turkey and ready
to support all her claims in return for
Turkish support for our demand for an
outlet to the Aegean, which has been
promised us and which we mean to
M. Stambouliwski said that as for the
proportion of the Ottoman debt owed by
the parts of Bulgaria won from Turkey.
Bulgaria would not pay one cent.