Greek Genocide Bibliography



President Says He Will Forgive Woman,
Once His Friend, Who Joined Conspirators

Los Angeles Examiner
August 1, 1926.

By Mustapha Kemal Pasha
(The Dictator of turkey in an interview with Emile Hildebrand,
a Los Angeles Examiner

I shall not stop until every guilty person, no matter how high
his rank, has been hung from the gallows as a grim warning to
all incipient plotters against the security of the Turkish
Republic. Since the very hour of its reincarnation in the
rejuvenated body of the Republic, our nation has endured
travails no other nation has ever experienced.
     When we were fighting external enemies, or enemies whom
we were certain were sympathetic with foreign intriguers, nearly
all of the rank and file of our population were enthusiastically,
even fanatically, united to deliver the nation from the
multiple foreign yokes. But no sooner had the nation proved
its worth to its foreign detractors than certain elements,
bred in the old school of political intrigue, began to show
their claws. We were face to face with a menace to the life
of the republic from two elements.
     One was the group who combined religious fanaticism
and ignorance with political imbecility and who, in the
past, under different Sultans had come to believe that the
state was an organism to be exploited through debauchery,
corruption and brazen bribery for personal ends. I put the
ax in the dual root of this sinister and reprehensible
theory of government by destroying the Khalif and the
Sultan. I sent into exile the persons in whom this theory
was personified. Large numbers, adherents of this school
of politics, attempted to interpret my act as atheistic,
and, under the aegis of religion, began to intrigue against
the life of the republic.

     In several instances in the past when, in Kurdistan and
other interior regions of Anatolia, they showed a disposition
to challenge the will of the republic. I crushed them with
an iron hand, and for example, had over sixty of their leaders
hanged at dawn.
     That element had its lesson and will not again attempt to
measure swords with me.
     The second element, I am now about to deal with ruthlessly,
is the group of men who in the pre-republic days were known
to the world as the Committee of the Union of the Young Turks.
The ranks of this element were recruited from a questionable
assortment of political adventurers, half-educated
progressives and men of dissolute habits. In the days
when we were battling against foes from within and without
this element joined us and fought in our ranks. Yet from the
early days I had misgivings as to their motives. But I wished,
hoped and then prayed that once our country was redeemed
from the foreign yoke, this element would mend its methods
and become infused with the zeal of patriotism. I soon began
to realize that my hopes were doomed to be disillusioned and
my prayers were to be unanswered. I patiently waited, keep-
ing a sharp eye on their movements.

     They formed themselves into a political opposition. I do
not pretend to be a dictator, bent to suppress sincere and
honest political opposition, because a republic is a misnomer
when it ceases to brook criticism. But when a group of dissolute,
corrupt and unscrupulous political adventurers begin to organize
seditious movements under the cloak of political opposition,
it becomes the sacred duty of those who are in charge of the
machinery of the government to suppress it and suppress it
with an exemplary ruthlessness that will prevent the eventual
shedding of rivers of blood.
     I am about to show these plotters that the Republic of
Turkey cannot be overthrown by murderers or through their
murderous designs...
     These left-overs from the former Young Turkey Party,
who should have been made to account for the lives of millions
of our Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse,
from their homes and massacred, have been restive under the
Republican rule. They have hitherto lived on plunder, robbery
and bribery and become inimical to any idea or suggestion to en-
list in useful labor and earn their living by the honest sweat
of their brow.
     Under the cloak of the opposition party, this element, who
forced our country into the Great War against the will of the
people, who caused the shedding of rivers of blood of the
Turkish youth to satisfy the criminal ambition of Enver Pasha,
has, in a cowardly fashion, intrigued against my life, as well
as the lives of the members of my cabinet.
     I would have more respect for them had they planned an
armed revolution, taking the field in a manly fashion, to
overthrow my government. But being conscious of the fact
that they could not muster out even one regiment to give
battle to the zealous adherents to, and upholders of, the
glorious republic, they have resorted to beastial methods of
assassination. They have hired murderers and even debauched
women to commit their murderous acts.
     In the middle of June last I had planned to make a tour of
the country. My itinerary was published. A group of these
assassins, placed on the route of procession, were to "rain"
hand grenades at the automobiles which were to carry me and
my staff.
     They went even further and seduced a woman who had been
for years identified with my cause and who had been my loyal
political friend and on occasion, even adviser. They induced
this woman to accept the reprehensible assignment to present
me with a bouquet which concealed a bomb that would, on my
receiving it, explode and obliterate everyone in sight. This
ill_advised woman deserves pity, for she was made to believe
that she would thus sacrifice her own life for the good of the
fatherland. I was the enemy of the nation. She will be forgiven
for her part in the plot, for she conscience_stricken,
confessed to the proper authorities in time for me to cancel
my intended tour. 




Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate
1 Dec 1914.

              ATHENS, Monday.
   Hajis  from    the    minarets    at  Beirut
have  exhorted  the populace to massacre
Christians  and  Europeans  whenever  the
warships of  the Powers  of  the  Entente
  Beirut  is  on  the  coast  of Syria, at  the
foot of Lebanon, and 147 miles from  Jeru-
   The  Italian  cruiser  Calabria   has   been
ordered  to  proceed  to  Syria  to protect
Italian subjects.

TURKEY'S JIHAD. (1914, December 1). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from



Children and Old Men Towed Out to Sea in barges and
Dumped Overboard to Drown - Turks' Brutality
Organized by Hun Efficiency.

The Washington Post
1st of January, 1918

  New York, Dec. 31. - At least 1,000,000
Greeks,  men,  women and children have
perished   as   the   result   of  organised
massacres   and   deportations   by    the
'Turco-Teutons'   in   Asiatic  Turkey,  ac-
cording   to   a  statement   by    Lazaros
George   Macrides,   son   of   a   leading
merchant  of   Trebizond,   made   public
through  the  Armenian  and Syrian relief
committee here today.

Macrides,   who   recently  arrived  here,
says   he   was  one of a party of  2,000
Greeks  which  was rescued by the Rus-
sian  fleet  that bombarded  the town of
Ordou   late  last   August  and took the
refugees   aboard.  He  had  been taken
to Ordou, he said, when the  Turks raid-
ed  Trebizond  and  seized  his  father's
store along with those  of  other  Greek

"Those  of  us  who  were  between the
ages of 18 and 60 were drafted into the
Turkish   army,"   said   Macrides.  "Our
women and  children and the older men
were  placed  temporarily  in homes and
orphanages   unti  l the   opportunity of-
fered   to   dispose  of  them  in  the ap-
proved  urco-Teuton fashion, which   in
this   instance   turned   out   to   be by
wholesale drowning.

"The   unfortunate   survivors   of    de-
portations  were  towed out for several
miles into the Black Sea and then calm-
ly dumped overboard just like so  much
garbage.  None  of them survived. Ger-
man efficiency has simply organised the
natural brutality of  the Turk and  made
it many times more  effective  than ever
before. I should think  that  at the most
conservative estimate at least 1,000,000
of my fellow countrymen have perished
miserably through the organised cruelty
of   this  Turco-Teutonic  alliance.   The
only hope of the future lies in America."



Ismet, in Lausanne Conference, Gives those remaining in Turkey Two Weeks Grace.
Proceed to Discussion of Means of Evacuation - Greeks in Constantinople included.
Leaders, despairing of Agreement now, Plan for adjournment About Dec. 15

The New York Times
Dec 2, 1922.

From the New York Times
Copyright, 1922 by The New York Times Company.
Special Cable to THE NEW YORK TIMES
   LAUSANNE, Dec. 1.--A black page of
modern history was written here today.
Ismet Pasha stood before the statesmen
of the civilized world and admitted that
the banishment from Turkish territory
of nearly a million Christian Greeks,
who were two million only a few short
years ago had been decreed. The Turk-
ish Government graciously allows two
more weeks for the great exodus.  
   The statesmen of the civilized powers
accepted the Turkish dictum and set
about ways to get those thousands of
Greeks out of harm's way before they
should meet the fate of 800,000 Arme-
nians who were massacred in Anatolia
in 1910 and 1917.
     New Light on Turkish Massacres.
  Here, in the beauty of the Winter sun-
shine of the Swiss Alps, diplomats have
been for ten days talking political prob-
lems with the Turks, treating them as
equals. Massacre and bloodshed seemed
far away. But today a change took
place, and a new light was thrown on
the situation. The facts are not new:
the world knows the Turks' cruelty and
massacres. But the way their crimes
were presented this afternoon came like
a clever stage effect.
   As an audience may change from
smiles to tears, the diplomats here seem
to have had their souls touched today
as Lord Curzon unfolded the sinister
story of the fate of the Greeks in Asia
Minor; and today's events cannot but
fail to have an important effect on
the final settlement. In all probability
no treaty will be written at this session,
and in two weeks the conference will be
adjourned, it is believed, to meet again
in a month or six weeks. In the mean-
while the Turks will have time to think
things over and become more reason-
able or face the consequences.
   Today's meeting was scheduled under
the simple heading: "Exchange of
Prisoners." The delegates rolled in
luxurious automobiles to the old
chateau. They left it two hours later
with solemn faces. Within the ancient
walls the shades of murdered thou-
sands had poured to have their say.
     Dr. Nansen Reads His Report.
   Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, who had been
sent to Anatolia by the League of Na-
tions, read his report on conditions there
and made the radical recommendation
that all Greeks under Turkish sover-
eignty be got away quickly to save them
from starvation or death by other agen-
cies. It was immediately apparent that
something more than the mere discus-
sion of the fate of some few thousands
of prisoners of war had been staged.
   Ismet Pasha arose and said that the
Turks were willing to begin the discus-
sion of means for gettingall Greeks
out of Turkey and suggested that the
conference proceed at once to take up
the subject of minorities.
   Lord Curzon declared that he felt that
many thousands of lives were at stake
and said that quick action must be
taken. He said that the Turks had de-
creed that all Greeks in Anatolia must
get out by the last day of November
and added that they had extended the
date to December 13. Immediate steps, Lord
Curzon said must be taken to remove
the Greeks by that date.
     Ismet Admits Decree of Banishment.
   Instead of retreating before Lord Cur-
zon's attack, Ismet agreed that the
Greeks must leave Anatolia and volun-
teered the statement the Greeks in
Constantinople had better depart also.
Lord Curzon protested that this would
mean great economic loss for Turkey.
Ex-Premiere Venizelos declared that if
those hundreds of thousands were sent
to Greece the country could not care for
them and would have to ask the United
States for aid. When Lord Curzon
warned Ismet of danger to the Turks in
Western Thrace, which remains Greek,
Ismet coolly replied that it might be a
good idea to trade the Greeks in Tur-
key for the Turks in Greece.
   Lord Curzon then said that he wished
to give some statistics in order that
there might be a clear idea what was at
stake. He said that figures from Amer-
ican sources showed that before 1914
there were 1,600,000 Greeks in Anatolia.
Between 1914 and 1918 300,000 died, left
the country or otherwise disappeared.
Between 1919 and 1922 another 200,000
left Anatolia or disappeared. In Sep-
tember and October of this year another
reduction of 500,000 took place leaving
now 500,000 or 600,000 Greeks in Ana-
tolia, most of whom were males between
15 and 60, to whom the Turks had re-
fused permission to leave.
     A Million Greeks Wiped Out.
   "In other words" said the British
Foreign Minister "a million Greeks
have been killed, deported or have died."
   Lord Curzon said that there had been
300,000 Greeks in Constantipole, most
of whom were stil there, 320,000 Greeks
in Eastern Thrace, some of whose famil-
ies had been there for a thousand
years and more, all had fled before the
dread of the Turks, leaving desert areas
behind them.
   Turning to the issue of the prisoners
of war, Lord Curzon said that the
Greeks held 10,000 Turkish soldiers and
about 3,800 Turkish civilians. The
Turks hold about 30,000 Greek soldiers.
He further pointed out that there were
in Greece proper, in the Greek islands
and Western Thrace 480,000 Moslems.
He further mentioned 120,000 Greeks
who have been deported by the Turks
into inner Anatolia. He recommended
that immediate steps be taken to solve
the tragic problem.
   Ismet demanded that the Greeks free
at once the Turkish civilians whom they
held, whom he called hostages. He said
that some of Lord Curzon's figures were
too high, but he did not deny that the
Turks had decreed that all Greeks must
leave their territory. The outcome of
the discussion was the appointment of a
subcommittee to consider means for
getting the Greeks out of Turkish ter-
   This story of the fate of 2,000,000
Greeks who were in Turkey takes no
account of the wiping out of an almost
equal number of Armenians of whom
the Turks wished to be rid. After the
massacres of war times only about
300,000 Armenians remain in Turkey.
There is almost an equal number in
Constantinople and Thrace. They must
go somewhere else or be killed, in all
   The Turks have been invited by the
Allies to become members of the League
of Nations. They have replied that they
will join when their friends, the Reds of
Moscow, are admitted.
Recess From About December 15 Planned.
   Facing a situation which seems almost
impossible, the leaders of the Lausanne
Conference have about decided to try to
arrange a temporary settlement of the
most pressing issues between the Turks
and the Greeks and take a recess from
about December 15 until the middle of Janu-
ary or the first of February. It is re-
ported that meanwhile Ismet Pasha will
go to Angora to explain the allied posi-
tion on the larger questions.
   On the issues of the exchange of
prisoners, the protection of minorities,
the capitulations, the customs and the
Ottoman debt, the diplomats believe
that an agreement can be reached with
the Turks. But on the issues of the
European frontier of Turkey, the future
of the Straits and the Anatolian
boundary line, it appears unlikely that,
as long as Ismet Pasha sticks to his
instructions, any agreement can be
   According to present plans, Ismet
will take to Angora the proposals of
the Allies relating to these questions
and endeavor to bring back new instruc-
   This proposal originated with Ismet
Pasha and was tentatively approved by
Lord Curzon, who today communicated
the suggestion to the other delegations
including the Americans observers.
   While on the face of it the recess
would be taken to allow Ismet to con-
fer with the Angora Government in per-
son, conversations with the Turkish
delegates reveal another idea, namely,
that the Brussels conference may pro-
duce a change in the complexion of the
allied negotiations with the Turks. The
Turks feel that the allied unity at
Lausanne which they did not expect, is
due to a bargain between England and
France by which England has promised
France aid in the solution of the lat-
ter's economic problems, including rep-
   The Turks reason that after the Brus-
sels Conference the French will either
have the fruits of their bargain or will
be ready to act against Germany with-
out British help. In either eventuality
they calculate that France may be ready
to stand less firmly by the side of Eng-
land against themselves.
   It seems scarcely believable that the
Poincare Government could have given
the Turks any encouragement in such
hopes, but nevertheless the Turks seem
confidential that they will lose nothing by
     Turks Working With Russians.
   On the issue of the Straits the Rus-
sians, whose chief delegate, George
Tchitcherin, arrived tonight, are ready
to fight to the end the British claims,
whatever they may be. The Turks so
far are working closely with the Rus-
sians and are denying the British de-
mands for the demilitarization of the
Straits. Coached by the Russians, they
now refuse to listen to the proposal to
have the League of Nations Guard the
Straits, although three weeks ago in
Paris, Ismet said that the solution
would be acceptable. While the British
demand the right to send their warships
through the Straits into the Black Sea,
the Russians demand that the Straits
be closed to all warships, as before the
World War.
   With respect to the European frontier
the Turks demand a bridgehead on the
western side of the Maritsa River, on
the ground that it contains the railroad
station of Adrianople. The Allies re-
fuse to allow the Turks to cross the
Maritsa, on the ground that it gives
them an excellent bridgehead for offen-
sive operations in Europe.
   The Anatolian frontier issue hinges on
the Mosul oil fields, which the British
intend to keep within the borders of the
Mesopotamian mandate, but which the
Turks claim for themselves.
   On none of these three issues has the
slightest progress been made toward a
   It is true the Turks maintain stoutly
that the British have made them pro-
posals by which the Turks would get
sovereignty over the district in return
for an assurance of oil concessions, the
British giving assurances that they
could dispose of the French, Italian and
American claims. Lord Curzon himself
authorized a denial that any such pro-
posal has been made.
   The basic trouble here is that the
Turks present themselves as conquerors
having whipped the Greeks in 1922, while
the Allies present themselves as con-
querors, having whipped the Turks in
1918. Ismet Pasha, leading one side,
acts on the basis of the Mudania armi-
stice which marked the halt of the vic-
torious Turkish troops while Curzon,
leading the other side, acts on the basis
of the Mudros armistice, which marked
the halt of the victorious Allied troops.
Russian intervention on the one hand
and Balkan intervention on the other
serve to muddy the waters, with the
result of a confusion which is almost
   M. Tchitcherin on his arrival went
into a three-hour conference with Ismet
Pasha, head of the Turkish delegation.
Tomorrow the Turks will entertain the
Russian delegation at luncheon.
   In a statement to the press M.
Tchitcherin said:
   "Two principles will guide the Rus-
sian delegation at the Lausanne confer-
   "One is the principle of self-determina-
tion and the other is the need for peace
in the world. The first obviously ap-
plies to Turkey as well as to other na-
tions and, therefore, the Russians will
demand an independent Turkey. As for
the second principle, we consider one of
the essential conditions for peace in the
Near East is that the Straits shall be
effectively closed to all foreign war-
   Bulgaria Threatens to Fight Greece.
Premier Stambouliwski of Bulgaria, in
an interview tonight, declared that he
had quitted the Balkan League and was
going to work with the Turks. Further-
more, he said if the conference did not
give Bulgaria the port of Dedeaghatch
and a corridor to the Aegean, the Bul-
gars would "go and get it."
   "It is foolish to talk about the Balkan
bloc," he said. "There is no such thing.
If this conference does not give us De-
deaghatch as demanded, we will fight
the Greeks for it."
   "The Bulgarian Government is in com-
plete accord with Turkey and ready
to support all her claims in return for
Turkish support for our demand for an
outlet to the Aegean, which has been
promised us and which we mean to
   M. Stambouliwski said that as for the
proportion of the Ottoman debt owed by
the parts of Bulgaria won from Turkey.
Bulgaria would not pay one cent.



1,000,000 GREEKS KILLED?
Trebizond Merchant Puts Victims of "Turco-Germans" at That Figure.

The New York Times.
Jan 1, 1918.

  At least 1,000,000 Greeks, men, women,
and  children,  have  perished  as  the  re-
sult   of   organized  massacres   and   de-
portations   by   "the  Turco-Germans"  in
Asiatic   Turkey,  according    to  a   state-
ment  by Lazaros   George   Macrides, son
of   a  leading   merchant   of   Trebizond,
made  public   through  the Armenian and
Syrian   Relief   Committee   here   yester-
   Macrides,  who recently  arrived   here,
says he  was   one of a   party of   2,000
Greeks  which   was rescued  by the Rus-
sian  fleet   last    August and took   the
refugees aboard.
   "Those   of us who were between   the
ages of 16 and  60  were drafted into the
Turkish    Army, "  said  Macrides.   "Our
women  and children and the other men
were placed  termporarily  in homes and
orphanages until the opportunity offered
to dispose  of   them  in   the   approved
Turco-Tueton fashion, which   in  this in-
stance  turned  out to be   by  wholesale
   "The  unfortuante survivors  of the de-
portation  were   towed out for   several
miles into the Black Sea and then calmly
dumped   overboard   just like  so much
garbage. None of them survived.





The Greek Genocide was extensively covered in the English print media.
Below is a chronological list of some news reports.